Enlightenment Kant defines enlightenment as the human being’s emergence from his self –incurred minority. Accordingto Kant, minority is inability to make use of one’s own understanding without direction or advice from other people. Due to minority being self-incurred, one should always have courage to use their own understanding. One would think that it is comfortable to be a minor where everything is taken care of by others this is if one can or is able to pay. the act of being a minor prevents one to take a step from the minority group due to being timid and frightened from advancing.
The main aim of getting enlightened is to gain confidence in extricating themselves from minority, a public should enlighten itself hence have its freedom since in each society there is always a few independent thinkers, who are beyond the yoke of minority and embraced a spirit of rational valuing of one’s own worth which summons everyone to think of their own. Individual who by themselves are unable to be enlightened cannot be able to redeem the society from the yoke of minority which only deals with being dependent.
For enlightenment to take place, freedom to make public use of one’s reason in all matters, this implies that one can argue as much as possible but obey due to the limits that exist with freedom. a person should obey the laid down procedures and process but also should be allowed to make remarks about the errors and also putting them before his public for appraisal. Though slowly, the society is becoming enlightened due to emergence of many scholars. Teachers and clergymen in schools and religious institutions who encourage people to be rationale thinkers, we cannot comfortably say that we are in an enlightenment age but we can conclude that wee are in an age of enlightenment.
2) Explain Kants concept of critique? What are the characteristics of
Kant states that were are in the genuine age of criticism where he explains that the power of judgment should no longer be put off with illusory knowledge and demands that reasons to be taken on a new difficult task which is called self-knowledge which shall be a way of instituting a court of justice, where the reason may secure its rightful claims while dismissing all its own eternal and unchangeable laws.
In addition, the decision about the possibility or impossibility of a metaphysics in general and the determination of its sources which is mainly determined by the principles. for a critique to be complete it should have comprehensive system which should require derivative concepts to be present, however it cannot be pre-estimated in a single leap but can be gradually sought out. Connectively logic should also be applied where ht e ideas should be logically prepared and presented to represent a fact that will be easily understood. Understanding has to do with nothing further than itself and its own form although logic may be presupposed in judging about the latter but its acquisition must be sought in the sciences properly and also objectively.
A critique should be sure where it limits the speculation use of reason, this helps remove obstacles that threaten and limit the use of reason. this remains an important utility. however critique is not opposed to the dogmatic procedures of reason in its pure cognition as a science. Therefore, in science critiques can be said to be the preparatory activity necessary for the advancement of metaphysical as well as the grounded science (Kant, 1994).
Kant. I (1994). Prefaces and introductions to Critique of Pure Reason. Practice Philosophy Cambridge University Presss