Homeland Security

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The author has rightly presented that in America, homeland security has always been a matter of concern long before the September 11 attacks. When George Bush became the president of America in January 2001, terrorism was not a matter of priority in his administrative agenda. His administration was busy coping with many other problems like scarcity of staff in programs of foreign translation, poor and inefficient information systems and cultural differences between various agencies resulting in disruption of sharing of information. In 2011, the FBI requested the government to increase funding for counterterrorism programs in the coming Budget session. This proposal was rejected by the Attorney General just one day before the September 11 attack. The events of September 11 compelled the president to give more focus on terrorism with special priority to biological weapons of mass destruction. The Bush administration went on to establish the department of homeland security within the White House Congress. The department of homeland security was created with many new authorities to prepare the country against any future terrorist attacks. The focus was also on rapid response and recovery to terrorism. The Bush administration developed many new strategies and manuals on guidance for homeland security with extra focus on bioterrorism. The department of homeland security embodies multiple government departments and effectively manages its challenges. National Cybersecurity Initiative One of the most important concerns for the Bush administration was the nationwide cyber security. Cyber networks became a primary area of attack for the terrorists which resulted in unlawful access to the secret information and strategies of the Federal agencies. Electronic system of storing information had become the major support for securing a wide variety of strategy information regarding security and economy in both public and private sectors. Such systems were a primary target for terrorists and attacks on such system had become widespread. The Bush administration suspected that many such attackers were working in coordination with the foreign military organisations or the foreign intelligent services. Thus, among the many new enemies of America after the September 11 attack, the foreign intelligence bureaus attacking the electronic system became new and dangerous kind of adversaries. Cyber security became a crucial matter for the department of homeland security. Bush administration established the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI) in January 2008 to strategically focus on protecting the country from all kinds of threats to the cyberworld. The main function of CNCI is to anticipate future technological threats on electronic systems. The CNCI then instructs the Federal government to integrate many of its technical and organisational capabilities to better address sophisticated threats and vulnerabilities