Antiretroviral therapy is the only existing response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The disease has already and continues to kill so many people in the world. The virus mutates to thrive in antiretroviral conquered environments. This is an obstacle as it will make scientists stop focusing on coming up with a cure and start thinking of fighting this resistance. There is the need, therefore, to understand why the virus mutates and consider the strength of second-line regimens treatments as an alternative. The middle-income countries face the most challenges in trying to solve the virus’ resistance to ART. There is need for independent organizations from developed countries to carry out researches to explain these
Assumptions The paper makes the general assumption that, in all low and middle-income countries, the resistance and rate of spread are the same. The opportunistic infections are the same in the people living with the disease in the low and middle-income countries. In addition to that, the assumption in this paper is that the resistance to antiretroviral therapy is due to mutation of the virus, and no other factors result in the case. Limitations The paper is limited in explaining the factors that contribute to the resistance observed in emerging cases. The reason or reasons as to why the virus mutates once it gets in new environments are not explained. Preview and Methodology The literature review in this paper looks at three different reports analyzing the emergence of the virus and its resistance nature.