HIS334 History of the U S Civil War Final Exam

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While the Confederates were fighting for secession, the Republicans opposed it and hence on April 12th 1861, fighting commenced with the Confederates attacking a United States military installation in Fort Sumter in South Carolina.Both parties raised large armies and fought many wars at Antietam and Shiloh, but what gave a major turn to the events was Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. The freeing of the slaves in the South lent a moral goal to the war and allowed the Union to recruit African Americans to their army for reinforcements. Event European immigrants joined the Union in large numbers.Robert E. Lee, Confederate General gained many victories in the East with the Battle of Potomac, but he had lost his best general Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson in the Battle of Chancellorville in May 1863. There after, General Lee lost the Battle of Gettysburg and fled to Virginia. The Union Navy, under the leadership of Ulysses S. Grant captured the Mississippi River thus splitting the Confederacy.The third reason for the defeat of the Confederates was because they could not replace their causalities lost in the war against the Union and had to retreat into trenches. The Union grew in strength with manpower, political organizations, finance, industry and transportation. As a result of all this, the Confederacy collapsed in 1865, after Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House.The post – war era was called the period of Reconstruction. It was during this time that the whole restoration of the Union took place. The approximate figures of soldier deaths amounted to around 620,000 and the war’s casualties were about 970,000 which were more than all the U.S wars combined.Even today, the causes and the outcome of this war remains a controversy among Historians. The first and foremost goal of the war was to end secession and slavery and this brought