In Operant Conditioning learning refers to changes in behaviour as a result of experiences that occur after a response. Where in Classical Conditioning learning refers to involuntary responses that result from experiences that occur before a response.
To behaviourists, the mind is like a black-box. Their claim is we can study the mind by selectively presenting stimuli and study the response emitted by the organism.
For structuralists, confusing immediate experience of an object with the description of the object is called a stimulus error
Looking at a complex arrangement, humans tend to perceive it as a sum of simple parts. This is called pragnanz in Gestalt Psychology.
Things that have resemblance in their physical properties are tend to be grouped together, according to Gestalt Psychology. This is called Similarity
Things that are closely positioned together tend to be grouped together, according to Gestalt Psychology. This principle is called proximity.
The law of Closure states that the brain has the tendency to ignore and fill gaps in an otherwise incomplete pattern. People tend to perceive the whole while filling the missing piece.
According to Recognition by Components theory, there are 36 geons that use object constancy that we can compare and distinguish visual objects despite the noise.
There are basic properties of geons. Discriminability states geons are distinguishable from one another at all times. View invariance states geons can be perceived even when with different visual conditions. Resistance to visual noise states geons are recognizable from different orientations.
Feature integration theory states there are two stages depending on the attention.
The pre-attentive stage of this theory depends on parallel processing, focused attention stage depends on serial processing.
Cognitive Psychology is different from traditional psychology due to its focus on the process of the mind, rather than just focusing on the psyche. This is inspired from the functionalist approach in philosophy
In the theory of modularity of mind, domain specificity suggests that every module operates on specific functions.