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Heart attack

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Heart attack is a condition when the blood flow to heart is blocked and if not restored quickly could cause the collapse of heart muscles leading to heart attack. Heart is a muscular organ where oxygen rich blood is carried through arteries which pump out blood to all parts of body through network of arteries and veins. When sufficient oxygen does not reach to the muscles of heart to make it work, its muscles tend to get damaged or die, resulting malfunctioning of heart or heart attack.
Cause
The main cause of the heart attack is thickening coronary arteries that reduce or block the flow of the blood to the heart muscles thus not only decreasing the supply of the blood and oxygen to the heart but also making the muscles to exert more pressure or force for the blood flow. The blockage in the artery damage heart muscles so that it is not able to function normally and lead to malfunctioning of heart or heart attack. If the blockage is not removed fast, it could be fatal and may result in the death of the person (Antman, 2011). On the inside linings of the one or more coronary arteries, plaques or atheroma develop over a period of time, which narrow the arteries thus obstructing free flow of the requisite amount of blood to the heart muscles. High cholesterol are main causes of thickening of blood vessels. If not treated timely, the thickening of arteries could block the blood flow to heart. Many times, high blood pressure also becomes key causes of heart attack.
Symptoms
Acute pain in the chest especially in the left side including left arm and may mostly lasts for more than 20 minutes.
Breathlessness and difficulty in breathing.
nausea, vomiting, sudden dizziness or breaking out in cold sweat.
Tight squeezing or pressure on the heart.
The pain may recur after some rest.
Treatment protocol
‘Initial treatment requires attention to any precipitating factors, such as hypertension, anemia, congestive heart failure (CHF), tachyarrhythmia and valve disease’ (Opie,p351). The other forms of treatment are medicine and surgery as follow:
Providing oxygen through external source so that heart dies not have to work hard.
Angioplasty is first option to clear the blockage in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart. A stent is later used within vessel and prevents its closing up. It is a metallic mesh tube that expands artery walls when it is inserted within it (Pifarre &amp. Scanlon, 2001).
Sometimes, when heart attack is mild, some medicines that dissolve clots could be given.
Bypass surgery is also recommended to open blocked blood vessel.
Complications
Complications in the treatment of heart attack occur when the patient has many diseases like diabetes, high blood pressure and kidney problems. These diseases help delay the treatment or complicate it. Acute diabetic patients tend to avoid operations as blood clotting is a delayed process which could cause complicity in heart operations.
Why I chose the topic
I chose this topic because heart is one of the vital organs of living beings. It pumps oxygen and blood throughout the body for life sustenance and serves as major indicator of health and wellbeing. It is also responsible for loving relationships and promotes compassion and caring for other people. It is also chosen because when heart dies, person is also dies. (words: 567)
Reference
Antman EM. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: pathology, pathophysiology, and clinical features. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds.&nbsp.Braunwalds Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsever. 2011:chap 54.
Opie, Lionel H. and Gersh, Bernard J.Ed. Drugs for the Heart. New Delhi. 5th ed.. Harcourt(India) Private Limited, 2001.
Pifarre’, Roque and Scanlon, Patrick, J.. 2001. Evidence Based Management of The Acute Coronary Syndrome. Philadelphia. HANLEY &amp. BELFUS INC., 2001.