Habermas Political Philosophy

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The Habaermas discourse ethics theory attempts to elucidate the inference of communicative rationality in the light of moral basics and normative validation. This is an extremely intricate effort for theoretically formulating the fundamentals given by Kant’s deontological ethics particularly in terms of break-up of communicative structures. In other words it attempts to explain the universal nature as well as the obligatory nature of morality through inducing the universal obligation of communicative rationality.
Habermas implies that the validity of the norms of morality is not justifiable in the mind of an individual and on his/her impression of the world. Rather the norm’s validity is totally dependent and possible when the process is subjected to argumentation among individuals. hence it is rather dialectic. In this manner the theory states that the validity of a claim to normative rightness depends upon the mutual understanding achieved by individuals in an argument (Habermas 1990). Habermas has from the above arguments deducted that the world’s moral principles are the result of validity claims through discursive justifications which have been imposed upon individuals by the presupposition of communication and argumentation. Some examples can be:
The presupposition that there is no argument which is relevant that is excluded by the individuals involved in the discourse
The presuppositions that that all the individuals that participate use the same manner of expression (linguistic and cultural) in the communicative exchange
The presupposition that all the individuals who participate are truly motivated by a common concern for the best argument
Besides the above, there are special and specific presuppositions that are unique to discourse:
The presupposition that all the individuals should be agreeable on the universal validity of the claim in general
The presupposition that each and every individual is fully capable to speak and act in a rational manner so as to make them eligible to participate. it also presupposes that all are equal to open new topics and introduce them into the discourse whether it is as an expression of attitude or desire or needs
The presupposition that none of the validity claims are exempt from group’s critical evaluation and argumentation in that regard