Growth Hormone in Psychological Processes
Growth hormone gets secreted by somatotroph cells located in the anterior pituitary gland. This hormone plays a vital role in psychological processes such as growth and metabolism (Juul amp. Jens, 2000). Growth hormone has two different effects on body physiological effects. direct and indirect effects. Direct effects of the growth hormone arise from the growth hormone bidnding to its target cells via its receptor. Indirect effects of growth hormone get controlled by the insulin like growth factor I- IGF-1 (Juul amp. Jens, 2000). IGF-1 is a hormone that gets secreted by the liver plus other tissues in response to secretion of growth hormone. Excessive production of growth hormone gets caused by growth of a benign tumor in the somatotroph cells. This condition gets referred to as adenoma. A tumor of the islets of langerhans or the lung which produce Growth hormone releasing hormone can also stimulate excessive production of growth hormone.
The growth hormone interacts with insulin through the IGF axis. The liver secretes insulin like growth factor 1- IGF-1, in response to secretion of the growth hormone (Juul amp. Jens, 2000). The IGF axis interaction is vital in the inhibition of cell death and promoting cell proliferation. IGF-1 is necessary for achieving maximal growth.
Gigantism can get more complicated to treat than dwarfism. This is so because some forms of dwarfism get caused by insufficient production of growth hormone. These forms of dwarfism can become rectified by providing the patient with growth hormone (Artwelle amp. Vislon, 2008). Gigantism, however, results from the overproduction of growth hormone. This can become hard to correct as it is more difficult to place the excess growth hormone in the required normal range. The metabolic rates in a giant also become hyper abnormal, this contributes to a less life expectancy for giants.
The pituitary gland gets located in the brain. It is divided into the anterior and posterior lobe. The pituitary gland secretes prolactin hormone, which stimulates the production of breast milk and the control of menstrual periods (Ho, 2011). Prolactin activates the mammary glands to generate milk. During pregnancy, prolactin concentrations rise causing enlargement of the mammary glands. Also produced in the pituitary gland is the hormone vasopressin. Vasopressin also gets referred to as anti-diuretic hormone. This hormone encourages water retention by the kidneys. This hormone works in the kidney’s collecting ducts to stimulate reabsorption of water by the body. This action by the vasopressin hormone reduces the volume of urine.
Anabolic steroids refer to man-made chemical substances almost similar to male sex hormones. Anabolic steroids get taken to build muscle, improve appearance or enhance performance. Growth hormones get found in the human body and promote growth and development (Lenehan, 2003). Unlike anabolic steroids, growth hormones do not have many side effects, and those known can be corrected. When taken as a supplement, growth hormone does not need to be injected unlike steroids as they are easily absorbed. Growth hormones are also cheaper compared to steroids. Growth hormone is not addictive when compared to steroids. Excessive use of steroids can cause irreversible damage to the human body, and a ton of side effects.