Global Issue of TB

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The researcher states that a third of the world’s population carries latent TB infection, which can appear at any time as symptomatic and at times life-threatening disease when the immune systems of the infected persons are compromised. While many will never become ill, those who get often suffer due to inadequate and incomplete treatment with an undesirable outcome because of their vulnerable and fragile health systems. A major cause of death, TB ranks as the eighth leading cause of death in low and middle-income countries. It is a third biggest cause of death, after HIV/AIDS and ischemic heart disease in the age group of 15-59 years. TB, generally, is a curable disease. people with drug-sensitive type can be cured in six months. However, treatment of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) that are resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most important first-line drugs used in the treatment of TB, is really challenging. There is around 0.4–0.5 million cases of MDR-TB each year. It requires the use of second-line drugs that are costlier with severe side-effects, and treatment has to continue for the longer period may be up to two years. Even then the prognosis is not always very good for, with success rate of 50% to 70%. According to the WHO, each year, there are around 9 million new cases of TB and about 2 million deaths due to TB infection. Almost every country of the world is affected by the TB, however, most cases (85%) occur in Asia (55%), and Africa (30%) with India and China alone account for 35% of all cases. Of all the world’s TB cases, 80% of the cases are reported from 22 countries (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brazil, Cambodia, China, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Thailand, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Vietnam and Zimbabwe), which are known as high-burden countries (HBCs) and have been given special attention in TB control.