346). This is what drove gender consumption in the modern era- men were men, and women were women. A mans identity used to be dependent upon his role as a provider and his place of employment this has been the traditional way that has defined the essence of the male identity in the modern society. This is known as the 塗egemonic gender identity(Vigorito &. Curry, 1998, p. 137).
Moreover, male consumption patterns were not just influenced by the hegemonic gender identity, but, in the post-Civil War era, were influenced by the Puritans (Bocock, 2000, p. 6). The Puritans had an ethic of asceticism, with not too much money spent upon men and boys, and the housing was sparse and not elaborate. The Puritan ethic dictated that British men during this period not spend money on jewelry, fine clothing and eating and drinking well, and these patterns were not economically driven (Bocock, 2000, p. 8). This morphed into contemporary society, in which, it is argued, Henry Ford is responsible for the increase in consumption, for he pioneered the idea that workers should be paid well, which led to more disposable income and, thus, more consumption (Gabriel &. Yang, 1995, p. 9). In advanced capitalist societies, Ford made consumption more egalitarian, and less the province of the rich (Gabriel &. Yang, 1995, p. 10).
Moreover, modern consumption is also driven by the choices that were being offered in modern society, choices that were not offered in earlier societies, before mass production of goods became the norm (Gabriel &. Yang, 1995, p. 11). This is illustrated by the British consumption of food as a percentage of their expenditures in the early 20th century, British families spent between one half and two thirds of their income on food. by the middle of the twentieth century, this number was only one third (Gabriel &. Yang, 1995, p. 12). This mass production had a side effect as well, one that would influence the post-modern