Surveys conducted in 1999 by prison administrators indicated that gangs were overall around different prisons in America. Moreover, most of the gangs within the same prison harbor rivalry, which is based on their race. However, it has been proofed imprisonment of gang members has been a short-term solution for violence caused by these gangs in the community. In fact, this can result in long rum increase of cohesion between the member of the gang and increased recruitment of more members (Agedorn, 1990). For example, numerous researchers have indicated that many memberships to the gangs are reinforced by the involvement that is considered the opposite intention of incarceration, though there are people how to get the chance to join the gangs for their first time while imprisoned.
The year 1950 marked the beginning of prison gangs in Washington, and later during 1957 in California (Skarbek, 2012). In fact, later during 1969, prison gangs were introduced in Illinois, and by 1970s the states adjacent California and others bordering Mexico had been influenced into the behavior of formatting these groups (Shelden, 2004). In addition, this behavior was transmitted to other states at the north of Illinois, and by 1980s, there was a similar organization that was developing in prison systems among regions. .Development of indigenous prison gangs was based on the sense of belonging or for the purpose of protection during the period of confinement. Moreover, these groups are made to facilitate activities such as black markets for illegal commodities such as drugs (Agedorn, 1990). On the other hand, racism has been a substantial factor attributing to the development of prison gangs.