Evidence review

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The underlying causes of bowel dysfunction maybe primarily associated with the bowel inflammatory conditions or it may result from other secondary factors which include injuries to the spinal cord, as a result of the side effects of certain medications or due to certain endocrine disorders as well as improper diets and infectious agents. Proper diagnosis and management of bowel dysfunction is essential for the health of the patient. The treatment is related to the type and the extent of the disease (Friedman 1994,Top of FormStein 2003). This paper will encompass the pathologies which are associated with bowel dysfunction and serve to explain their underlying reasons along with their diagnostic criteria and the most appropriate treatment according to the condition of the patient.According to the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bowel dysfunction refers to problems with the frequency, consistency and/or ability to control your bowel movements. (2007) This serves to explain the meaning that alterations in the motility of the small intestine and the normal bowel function can result in conditions which are referred to as bowel dysfunction. Constipation, diarrhoea and faecal incontinence are examples of bowel dysfunction.Constipation is a condition which may result due to a reduction in the bowel motility, hard faecal matter which cannot be expelled or if the amount of faecal matter is less than the amount which can be defecated. The defining factor of constipation can vary from one person to another as the bowel habits between different patients are variable. This is because a bowel frequency ranging from one per day to three per week is considered to be normal. If this frequency is reduced to less than one time in a period of three days, it can be referred to as constipation. If constipation exists for a long time, a more severe condition which is known as impaction may result. In this state the faecal matter is