To make it simpler, it can be said that it is the belief that the value of a thing or an action is determined by its utilityii. His theory consists of three basic elements: Consequentialism, Impartiality and Hedonism.
It means that the moral worth of an action is determined by the consequence and therefore, makes it a form of Consequentialism. Utilitarianism emphasis more on majority and it is concerned with the happiness of the greatest number of people in the society. This theory opposes suffering and promotes happiness. Most appealing factor is the simplicity. The end result of any action is considered and deemed moral or immoral as per how much happiness that particular action is providing in that particular circumstance.iii
On the other side, Deontology totally opposes Utilitarianism. This theory is the ethical theory of duties, moral obligations and rights which focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions not on the consequence of those actions.
The term is derived from the Greek word deon, which means “duty”. This theory is very rigid in a sense that it has fixed statements of duties. It is concerned with the intrinsic properties of action. This theory is very strict where rules are followed no matter how huge its cost may be.
The most dominant deontological theory is presented by Immanuel Kant. Kant argues that to act in the morally right way, people must act according to dutyiv. Kant believed that the motives of any person make the action right or wrong.
First of all, let’s analyse this situation keeping in view the utilitarianism theory of ethics. We need to know what the end results of this action are. The end result is a dam which will be providing waters to many areas as well as it would be creating electricity through hydroelectric. Farmers would have more water for their farms. In short, this dam will bring smiles in faces of thousands of people. But those who are moving for this