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ENGLISH LEGAL SYSTEM

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The Supreme Court exists over the Court of Appeal. the decisions of the Court of Appeal can be challenged and appealed in the Supreme Court. Criminal Division The decisions of the Crown Court can be challenged in the Criminal Division of the Court of Appeal. Civil Division The cases relating to the family justice and the civil law from the High Court, the County Courts in certain cases and the Tribunals. all can be appealed in the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal. High Court They, the Queen’s Bench Division, the Chancery Division, and the Family Division, are included in the legal structure of the High Court. Verdicts of the High Court may be appealed to the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal. Queen’s Bench Division: Technology and Construction Court (TCC) This Division hears the cases of disputes in the technology and construction involving questions and issues which are technically complex. In such cases, a specialist TCC judge is desirable to hear the proceedings of the cases. Queen’s Bench Division: Mercantile Court The national and international business disputes involving complexity and claims of lesser value are heard in the Division. the cases must be other than those heard by the Commercial Court. Queen’s Bench Division: Commercial Court The Commercial Court of the Queen’s Bench Division hears the cases of disputes of the national and international business level relating to the commodities, banking, arbitration dispute and international trade. Queen’s Bench Division: Admiralty Court The shipping and maritime disputes are heard in the Admiralty Court of the Queen’s Bench Division. Disputes concerning collisions, carriage of cargo, salvage, limitation, and mortgage are heard in the Division. The Admiralty Court by exercising its legal power can issue an order arresting cargoes and vessels. Queen’s Bench Division: Administrative Court Administrative Court is entrusted with a considerable jurisdiction. It hears statutory appeals and application, applications under the Drug Trafficking Act 1984 and the Criminal justice Act 1988, and judicial reviews as well. In addition, the Division is entrusted to observe the legality factor of decisions and actions of the tribunals and inferior courts, Ministers of the Crown, local authorities and other public bodies. The Chancery Division: Companies Court Companies related disputed are heard by the Companies Court of the Chancery Division. The cases of commercial fraud, management of company, director’s disqualification, business disputes and insolvency, are brought into the Companies Court. The Chancery Division: Divisional Court Cases concerning bankruptcy, tax partnership, trusts, equity, contentious probate and land, are heard by the Divisional Court of the Chancery Division. The Chancery Division: Patents Court The Patents Court of the Chancery Division hears the cases of copyright, trademark and patent, intellectual property and passing off. Family Division: Divisional Court Family disputes are mostly brought into the Divisional Court of the Family Division. The disputes concerning parentage, domestic violence, family homes, children custody, adoption, annulment, separation, medical treatment and divorce declarations, are heard by the Division. County Courts The County Courts hear cases concerning claims for debts repayment, contract breach involving goods or property, family issues, housing issues and enforcement of the previous decisions of the County Court.