Emigration in the Last 30 Years in Mexico Cuba and El Salvador

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Out-migration from Cuba has been a problem for democratic countries, particularly the US since Fidel Castro took office more than 40 years ago. (Wasem, 2006) Similar trends are manifested by El Salvador. Despite the end of its civil war approximately 15 years ago, El Salvadorians continue to leave El Salvador in record numbers. (Snyder, 2007) This paper examines the emigration trends in Mexico, Cuba and El Salvador over the last thirty years and will analyse both its causes and the consequences for these countries and the countries to which they emigrate.The rate of out-migration from Mexico over the last few decades has been extending to such an extent that in recent years it has been described as explosive. (Cornelius, Borger, Sawyer, Keyes, Appleby, Parks, Lozada and Hicken, 2008) In general, the US is home to approximately 35 million legal and illegal immigrants, 2.7 times larger than any other country worldwide. (United Nations, 2002) The difficulty for the US is the large numbers of Mexican immigrants arriving in the US with no legal immigration status as well as low education. (Bean, Brown and Rumbaut, 2004)Emigration in Mexico is characterized by urban migration in the sense that the waning labour demands have forced Mexicans out of the rural areas and into Mexican cities and to the US. Over the last thirty years, this trend has intensified so that migration from rural Mexico to urban Mexico, increased by 182 percent from 1980 to 1994, and even more by 352 percent from 1980 and 2002. Out-migration to the US increased by 92 percent from 1980 to 1994 and by 452 percent from 1980 to 2002. (Yunez-Naude and Taylor, 2006) The astonishing growth in Mexican emigration over the last 30 years, can be demonstrated by analysis. Up to 1970, Mexico’s share of the US population was merely 1.5 percent.