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CECS RC001: Foundations of ResearchShort-Answer Assessment Submission FormContact InformationPlease provide your contact information and date of submission below.Your Name: First and LastYour E-mail address: Your Email HereDate: Click here to enter a dateInstructionsThis Competency includes a Short-Answer Assessment. Write your response to each prompt below in the space provided. Beneath the prompts is the Rubric which will be used by the Competency Assessor to evaluate your responses. Carefully review the Rubric rows associated with each prompt to provide a complete response. When writing your response, begin typing where it reads “Enter your response here.” Write as much as needed to satisfy the requirements of the prompt (as defined in the Rubric). Save this file as RC001_firstinitial_lastname(for example, RC001_J_Smith) and upload it to this Assessment within the learning platform. Short Answer 1In 1–2 sentences, explain each of the principles or concepts of early childhood research listed below. Quantitative approachesQualitative approachesLongitudinal researchHypothesesReplicationGeneralizabilityYour ResponseEnter Your Response HereRubric 0 Not Present 1 Needs Improvement 2 Meets Expectations 3 Exceeds Expectations Sub-Competency 1: Explain key principles, concepts, and ethical standards in early childhood research. Learning Objective 1.1: Define key principles and concepts. Some or all definitions are not present. Definitions are weak or illogical. Definitions are succinct and accurate. Demonstrates the same level of achievement as “2,” plus the following: Definitions provide context in the field of early childhood studies. Short Answer 2List three principles of high-quality research and explain the importance of each principle. Your response should be 2–3 paragraphs in length.Your ResponsesEnter Your Response HereRubric 0 Not Present 1 Needs Improvement 2 Meets Expectations 3 Exceeds Expectations Sub-Competency 1: Explain key principles, concepts, and ethical standards in early childhood research. Learning Objective 1.2 Explain the importance of the principles of high quality research. Response is not present or is inaccurate. Response lists fewer than three principles of high quality research. Response provides weak or partial explanations of their importance. Response clearly describes three principles of high quality research. Response provides a thorough explanation of the importance of the identified principles. Demonstrates the same level of achievement as “2,” plus the following: Response includes a thoughtful analysis of the importance of each principle in terms of early childhood research. Short Answer 3Define informed consent. How does informed consent apply to research with children? Your response should be 3–5 sentences in length. Your ResponseEnter Your Response HereRubric 0 Not Present 1 Needs Improvement 2 Meets Expectations 3 Exceeds Expectations Sub-Competency 1: Explain key principles, concepts, and ethical standards in early childhood research. Learning Objective 1.3: Define informed consent and its application to research with children. Response is not present or is inaccurate. Response partially defines informed consent and/or its application to children. Response accurately defines informed consent and its application to research with children. Demonstrates the same level of achievement as “2,” plus the following: Response addresses the legal and ethical implications of informed consent. Short Answer 4Provide at least one example of ethical behavior in research with children. Provide at least one example of unethicalbehavior in research with children. Your ResponseEnter Your Response HereRubric 0 Not Present 1 Needs Improvement 2 Meets Expectations 3 Exceeds Expectations Sub-Competency 1: Explain key principles, concepts, and ethical standards in early childhood research. Learning Objective 1.4: Describe examples of ethical and unethical behaviors in research with children. Response is not present or is inaccurate. Response is incomplete or provides weak examples. Response provides one relevant example of ethical and unethical behavior in research with children. Demonstrates the same level of achievement as “2,” plus the following: Response provides more than one example of both ethical and unethical behavior in research with children. Short Answer 5For each link below, identify the type of source that is represented from the “Types of Sources” list. Then, explain the characteristics of each type of source.Types of SourcesWeb articleResearch articleResearch briefPeer-reviewed research articleLinksJohanson, S., & Kuh, L. (2013). Critical friends groups in an early childhood setting: Building a culture of collaboration. Voices of Practitioners, 8(2), 1–16. Retrieved from http://www.schoolreforminitiative.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Voices_Johanson_v8n2.pdfYour ResponseEnter Your Response HereRecchia, S., & Bentley, D. F. (2013). Parent perspectives on how a child-centered preschool experience shapes children’s navigation of kindergarten. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 15(1). Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1016156.pdfYour ResponseEnter Your Response HereMira, W. A., & Schwanenflugel, P. J. (2013). The impact ofreadingexpressiveness on the listening comprehension of storybooks by prekindergartenchildren. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 44(2), 183–194.Retrieved from Walden University Library.Your ResponseEnter Your Response HereFriedman-Krauss, A., & Barnett, W. S. (2013). Early childhood education: Pathways to better health (NIEER Preschool Policy Brief, Issue 25). New Brunswick, NJ: NIEER. Retrieved from http://nieer.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/health20brief.pdfYour ResponseEnter Your Response HereRubric 0 Not Present 1 Needs Improvement 2 Meets Expectations 3 Exceeds Expectations Sub-Competency 2: Describe types of sources of early childhood research studies. Learning Objective 2.1 Describe the characteristics of different types of sources of early childhood research studies. Response is not present. Response is incomplete. Response correctly defines the type of source and provides the correct example. Demonstrates the same level of achievement as “2,” plus the following: Response elaborates on the characteristics by describing the value of each type of source. Short Answer 6Choose at least two high-quality research publications. Provide the name of each publication, describe what type of research each publication covers, and explain why each source is considered “high quality.”Refer to this ASU resource for an overview of high-quality research publications:Angelo State University (ASU). (n.d.-a). Library Guides. How to recognize peer-reviewed (refereed) journals. Retrieved from https://www.angelo.edu/services/library/handouts/peerrev.phpNote: You may also access high-quality early childhood research publications in the Walden Library. Your ResponseEnter Your Response HereRubric 0 Not Present 1 Needs Improvement 2 Meets Expectations 3 Exceeds Expectations Sub-Competency 2: Describe types of sources of early childhood research studies. Learning Objective 2.2 Describe high-quality sources of early childhood research studies. Response is not present or is inaccurate. Response is incomplete. Response describes the type of research covered in two high-quality publications. Response includes an explanation of the reasons the publications are consider high quality. Demonstrates the same level of achievement as “2,” plus the following: Response describes more than two high-quality publications. Short Answer 7List the main parts of a research article and provide a brief description of each.Your ResponseEnter Your Response HereRubric 0 Not Present 1 Needs Improvement 2 Meets Expectations 3 Exceeds Expectations Sub-Competency 3: Describe the main parts of research articles and the purpose of each. Learning Objective 3.1 Describe the main parts of a research article and the purpose of each part. Response is not present or is inaccurate. Response describes some of the parts of a research article. Description includes a partial explanation of the purpose of each part of a research article. Response accurately describes the five parts of a research article. Description includes a clear explanation of the purpose of each part of a research article. Demonstrates the same level of achievement as “2,” plus the following: Description includes each of the four parts of the methods section. Short Answer 8Define the terms “reliability” and “validity” in the context of research. Your response should be 3–5 sentences in length.Your ResponseEnter Your Response HereRubric 0 Not Present 1 Needs Improvement 2 Meets Expectations 3 Exceeds Expectations Sub-Competency 4: Explain the importance of validity and reliability in early childhood research. Learning Objective 4.1: Define reliability and validity within the context of early childhood research. Response is not present or is inaccurate. Response includes a partially-accurate definition of reliability and validity in the context of early childhood research. Response includes an accurate definition of reliability and validity in the context of early childhood research. Demonstrates the same level of achievement as “2,” plus the following: Response includes an example of reliable or valid test results cited in a peer-reviewed journal article. Short Answer 9In 1–2 sentences, define each type of validity and reliability. Types:Face validityCriterion validityContent validityInter-rater reliabilityYour ResponseEnter Your Response HereRubric 0 Not Present 1 Needs Improvement 2 Meets Expectations 3 Exceeds Expectations Sub-Competency 4: Explain the importance of validity and reliability in early childhood research. Learning Objective 4.2: Define types of validity and reliability. Response is not present or is inaccurate. Response is incomplete. Response includes an accurate definition of each type of validity and reliability. Demonstrates the same level of achievement as “2,” plus the following: Response includes an example of each type of validity from research articles. Short Answer 10Read the two research questions below. Then, suggest one or moredata-gathering techniques that could be used to test a hypothesis related to each, and explain why.Research questions:1. To what extent do preschoolers whose parents read to them on a regular basis perform better on academic tasks in elementary school than preschoolers who are not read to?2. Does flexible scheduling of parent-teacher meetings increase working parents’ involvement in their children’s education?Your ResponseEnter Your Response HereRubric 0 Not Present 1 Needs Improvement 2 Meets Expectations 3 Exceeds Expectations Sub-Competency 5: Describe the strategies used to gather data for research studies. Learning Objective 5.1: Describe strategies for gathering data in research studies. Response is not present or is inaccurate. Response mentions data-gathering techniques but does not match them to the questions. Response clearly describes one strategy for gathering data related to each research question presented. Response includes a logical rationale. Demonstrates the same level of achievement as “2,” plus the following: Response clearly describes more than one strategy for gathering data related to each research question presented.