CrossCultural Management Development

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Supra-culture is common across nations with similar economic backgrounds, religion and ethnicity (Srnka, 2004). Macro-culture is common within the nation, across people who share the same country of origin or residence (Srnka, 2004). Meso-culture is common amongst particular communities or professional groups within the broader macro-culture (Srnka, 2004). Finally, micro-culture is shared amongst family or clan members or by people across the same organization (Srnka, 2004). Culture has been defined differently in different areas, and, keeping in view its strategic importance, the concept of cultural ecology has sprung up where culture is assumed to be an outcome of the natural environment (Steward, 1955).The new wave of globalization is said to be bringing about what is known as cultural change. In this context, culture is not viewed as static but dynamic. that is, it is constantly evolving in an attempt to keep pace with the forces of globalization. This change has given birth to two distinct possibilities as far as cultural change is concerned. that of a clash of cultures and that of cultural learning (Soderberg Holden, 2002). At the same time, it is anticipated that a new culture is taking shape known as the global culture of the world culture (Soderberg Holden, 2002), which has its roots in the concept of the global village. The ‘global village’ concept tends to propose the idea of a boundary-less world, with strong integration brought about the revolutions in information technology and telecommunications. Although, this bore little relevance to the traditional management practices that were limited to planning, organizing, staffing and controlling, the globalization and its associated cultural dynamics have immense importance for contemporary management which is dynamic and not static. This strong relationship between the two issues has givenbirth to the concept of globalization and the concept of cross-culturalism.