19) to a situation where one requires assistance with the end goal of preserving and attaining a specified health and wellness (Johnson amp. Bayliss, 2005, p. 19). Given this definition, it follows that there exist theories on how such knowledge, skills, values, meanings, and experiences should be applied to a given situation. In this vein, there would also be theories on how these factors should be gained and learned.
As one of the most celebrated nurses of all time and as the person who singlehandedly popularized nurse training, which eventually led to the establishment of nursing as a new profession for women (Attewell, 1998, p. 151), Florence Nightingale and her early theories on nursing are both fascinating. Hence, I have decided to write a critique on the Florence Nightingale’s Environmental Model.
The environmental model, it is clear that it was a product of Florence Nightingale’s meticulous observation of her career as a nurse and that of others as evidence by the Notes on Nursing (1860) she compiled. This model, together with the notes, is enough proof that the Nightingale of her uniqueness in her time. Though borne by wealthy parents, she was different. According to Mary Garofalo and Elizabeth Fee (2010),
She wanted a higher calling. she wanted to work. to use her intellect, her skills, her moral passion. and to make a difference in the world. She refused to be a subordinate to a husband. she was bored with the trivial lives that upper class women led. she had her destiny to fulfill. She told her parents that she wanted to be a nurse. (p. 1588).
In spite of the reactions of her parents, she persisted. She wrote that her parents were horrified. It was as if I had said I wanted to be a kitchen-maid (Garofalo amp. Fee, 2010, p. 1588). Instead of submitting to the will of her parents, she persevered and after 9 years of struggling with them, she was eventually was allowed to train. This characteristic is just one of the many that I admire in Florence Nightingale. While I was researching for this paper, I thought to myself that if I only have an ounce of her determination, then I would achieve my dreams and goals easily.
The environmental model maintains that the manipulation of physical and social factors (Johnson amp. Bayliss, 2005, p. 121) can significantly affect the state of health of an individual and the probability that such individual will eventually acquire an illness. The intent of the theory therefore is to emphasize that health and wellness can be adversely affected by how one’s environment is managed or mismanaged.
As Johnson and Bayliss (2005) themselves admit, though this theory was developed by the Nightingale more than 150 years ago, it is still relevant and as a matter of fact has created the standard for the prevention of illnesses and the restoration of health and wellness (p. 121). Specifically, she identified several factors that are present in a patient’s environment and which have large impact on health and illness. These are pure or fresh air, pure water, sufficient food supplies, efficient drainage, cleanliness, and light (e.g., direct sunlight).
What is interesting is that even not knowing these factors and without any knowledge of the environmental m