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In the second part of the study, the participants will complete the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IESR). The purpose of the IESR is to determine the posttraumatic reactions to the traumatic bullying experiences. This study consists of three variables: independent, dependent and controlling variables. The independent variable is adult females who recall episodes of bullying when they were between the ages of 9 and 12. The dependent variable is duration of the most traumatic episode of bullying recalled and its connection to PTSD. The controlling variable is gender (female). Since the cohorts will be asked to recall past experiences, this is a retrospective study (Blane, 1996). Limitations associated with retrospective studies have been well-documented (Mantel, 1973). In particular, Collopy (1998) found that retrospective studies in which subjects were asked to recall their use of information systems was inconsistent with actual use and thus, retrospective self-reports can be biased. Coughlin (1990) conducted a review of the literature on the validity of retrospective studies involving subjects recalling previous and remote events. Coughlin (1990) found that while there are significant problems with recall bias and recall inaccuracies, researchers can control bias and inaccuracy in the way that they interview or design questionnaires. For the purpose of this study, the accuracy and bias of the retrospective self-reports are of no real significance. This study seeks to establish a link between childhood bullying in female victims and PTSD in early adulthood. The main issue is, therefore, the extent to which the early experiences with bullying triggers traumatic responses later on. PTSD patients are known to have no control over their recall and can have recall bias in that they tend to exaggerate recollections of previous traumatic experiences. It is always given that the traumatic experience is often relived and is real, although it can be exaggerated. What is important is that the previous experience was traumatic for the subject and that this previous experience is the trigger for post-traumatic reactions (Corales, 2005). Therefore, the weaknesses associated with retrospective studies in relation to recall bias and inaccuracies do not impact the validity of this study. This study is not concerned with the accuracy or bias of the subjects’ retrospective self-reports. PTSD is associated with flawed memory, although PTSD patients typically keep their past triggering traumatic experiences alive because they do not have the ability to suppress those memories, and re-experience those episodes involuntarily (Shiromani, Keene, amp. LeDoux, 2009). This study is only concerned with establishing the original triggering traumatic event and is not concerned with the accuracy of the subject’s memory or the accuracy of the details of that event. This study is only required to establish that the most traumatic experiences of bullying have triggered post-traumatic experiences. Thus, content validity is not necessary for establishing this link (Fitzpatrick, 1983). Empirical validity, however, is important to this study. In this regard, empirical validity is defined as: …accurate measurement or prediction of performance, as demonstrated by research. It refers to a test that has more than mere face validity (Corsini, 2002, p. 327). In