According to Sample (2003), an effective leader needs to be able to see the shades of gray inherent in a situation in order to make wise decisions as to how to proceed (Sample, 2003, p.7). But ‘thinking gray’ is an extraordinary characteristic which necessitates rather sincere efforts to build up variance in thinking power. A good decision will always comprises of all relevant facts and arguments which reflects the essence of thinking gray. Through his book, Sample tries to bring out three major hazards to effective leadership associated with binary thinking. According to the author, popular media are some of the stumbling blocks to effective leadership because they largely influence ‘thinking gray’. and at the same time it is not suggestible to attempt to think gray about everything such as cloth, food or popular music, as it would transfer ones’ brain into a ‘jumbled mess’(Sample, 2003, p. 12). It should be noted that thinking gray is entirely different from thinking skeptically since the later tend to judge as ‘not true’ everything one hears or reads. ‘Thinking free’ is a closely related concept to ‘thinking gray’. the difference is that the former takes that process of inventiveness to the next level. Sample says thinking free primarily allows us to ‘contemplate really outrageous ideas, and subsequently apply constraints of practicality, practicability, legality, cost, time and ethics’ (Sample, pp.12-13).