To be able to cater to various segments of society in an organized and effective manner, present day social work consists of three methods of assistance. case work, group work, and community organization. Case work is the method by which individual persons and families can be assisted on a case by case basis. The person in need of case work may have physical, mental, or social needs that are catered for by a social worker.
People who are unemployed, homeless, members of broken families, alcoholics, drug addicts, and neglected or problem children are catered to with this method. In such situations, it is imperative for a social worker to explore and determine the root cause of the problem, individual psychology as well as the sociology of the community. Experts from various fields like medicine and other specialists are commonly required to contribute towards this method.
Social group work is a relatively newer concept in social work, which includes establishing social settlements, building play grounds, gymnasiums, schools etc. This method involves extensive participation and authorizations from various authorities. It could also involve the voluntary services of public charitable groups or large corporations. In many circumstances, people living in poverty areas have been encouraged and employed to work in poverty alleviation related projects in their own communities.
In community organizations, the welfare work of single agencies as well as of whole communities is often required.