Comparative study of coastal protection against flooding between management alignment seawall and breakwater design

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The ministry of Agriculture, fisheries and food has estimated that if there were no defence in England and Wales, the annual average value of damage from flooding and coastal erosion would be of the order of nearly £3 billion, with the existence defence, damage still occur but is of the order of an average £600 million a year (Maff, 2000) which is still a lot of money.
The method that this project is going to be written on will be base on not only one aspect but three, which are economic, environmental and technical issues. Generally the management of flood and coastal defense within a strategic framework encourages practices that avoid disruption to natural processes and which are sustainable in the long term (including adapting to climate change).
The areas that this project is going to be based on or the approach strategically will be based on:

• Brief introduction to beach morphology
• The administrative framework for flood and coastal defence in England and Wales.
• Problems with flood and coastal defence policies.
• Management realignment
• Breakwaters structures from concept to design
• Seawalls structures from concept to design
• Assessment of the impact of coastal defence
• The long-term views.
• Innovation in seeking and developing solution.
• A comprehensive regard to impacts.

n seeking and developing solution. A comprehensive regard to impacts. The government flood and coastal defence policy is aiming: ‘‘To reduce risk to people and the developed and natural environment from flooding and coastal erosion by encouraging the provision of technically, environmentally and economically sound and sustainable defence measures.’’(HOC, 1998). Which is ideally what this project is about. BEACH MORPHOLOGY A beach can be defined as a deposit of mobile sediments located on the area in between the sea and the dry land that are regularly interfered with by the daily hydrodynamic processes such as tides, waves and current and in most cases wind (Rogers, Et al, 2010). British beaches around the coastline can be grouped into four main categories which include (i) Shingle, (ii) Shingle upper-sand lower, (iii) Mixed sand and shingle and finally (iv) sand. All the beaches around the UK demonstrate a continuing evolution process and can be practical considered to have began the transformation towards the end of the last Ice Age when the Sea levels were approximately 50-80 m lower than the present day measurement. A clear justification that the beaches are transforming from to time is the fact that during the Ice Age the UK beaches from South Wales to East Anglia of the Britain north were covered by an Ice sheet while presently north of this line, virtually all of the beaches are covered by thick boulder clay deposits laid down beneath the ice sheet (Rogers, Et al, 2010). In certain areas specifically along the south and the east coast of the UK the advancing sea came across and battered soft sedimentary rocks most which comprised of sand and gravels deposited in ancient geological periods and were parts shoreline as cliffs or coastal slopes. It is this