Choose two key social determinants and two interventions (upstream and downstream) and critically discuss the relationship of t

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The Social Determinants of Health and their Importance in Public Health Work Social determinant of health entail conditions within the environments in which individuals are born, live, learn, work, play, and age that impacts on a broad range of health, quality of life outcomes and risks, and functioning. An understanding on the manner in which population impacts on place and the influence of place on health is essential, especially with regard to enhancing the health outcomes of the population (CSDH 2008, p.5). The World Health Organization highlights the following as being the most significant social determinants of health, namely: poverty (absolute poverty bear a significant impact on health status). economic inequality (as the gap between rich and poor broadens, health status declines). social status. stress (social and psychological circumstance can render continual anxiety, low self-esteem, insecurity, and social isolation, all of which profound effects on health). education and care in life. employment. social exclusion. social security. job security. and food security (Kuulasmaa et al. 2000, p.675). Some of the ways of enhancing the overall health for a large number of people in a manner that can be sustained overtime entail working to establish policies that constructively influence the socioeconomic conditions of the people, and those that alter the individuals’ behaviour. Improving the environment in which people live, learn, play, work, and age, possesses a significant impact on the creation of a healthier population, society, and workforce. Some of the emerging strategies to responding to social determinants of health entail utilization of Health Impact Assessments to review the proposed, and existing social policies and their potential impact on health (O’Flaherty and Capewell 2012, p.855). The other strategy entails the application of health in all policies strategy that introduces enhanced health for all and bridges the health gaps as objectives to be shared across all facets of the government. # 2 Social Determinants and their relationship with Coronary Heart Disease in the UK Cardiovascular disease is a prominent public health problem that contributes close to 30% to the annual global mortality, and 10% to the global disease burden. Evidence on social determinants and inequities linked to cardiovascular disease essentially from developed countries points out an inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular incidence and mortality. The Independent Inquiry into the inequalities in health in late 1990s cited widening of inequalities in mortality (WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization 2008, p.117). Most recently, the publication titled Fair Society. Healthy Lives cited the persistence of inequalities across a broad range of health outcomes. Coronary heart diseases remain a good indicator of social inequalities within health due to behavioural, and medical risk factors associated with coronary heart disease are socially patterned (Lang et al. 2012, p.602). This mirrors the improvements that have been attained in risk factor profiles (especially with regard to reductions in smoking) and improvements in terms of treatment. Nevertheless, enhancements in the prevention or treatment can manifest at diverse