External factors such as attending school and socializing with other children combined with the child’s personal experiences at home also contribute to the success and underachievement in a child’s learning.Considering the importance of a child’s cognitive development as they become an adult, it is necessary on the part of the student to become familiar with the theories presented by Ivan Pavlov (1977). Edward Lee Thorndike (1927). Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1938). Albert Bandura (1977). and Jean Piaget. As part of going through the significance of each theory and concept on a child’s cognitive development, the student will discuss some ways on how these theories can be applied to the cognitive development of children with special needs. At the end of the study, the student will provide some recommendations on how school teachers could maximize the use of these theories together with the conclusion.Pavlov suggests that there are two types of reflexes known as an innate reflex and conditioned reflex. (Psychologie Online, 2008. Pavlov, 2003) Innate reflex is referring to a child’s instinctive reaction to a stimulus. For instance, when a baby is hungry, it is an automatic reaction for them to cry as a way of calling his/her mother’s attention to give him/her some milk. In the process of crying, the child learns that crying louder effectively calls his/her mother’s attention so he/she will be given some milk.A conditioned reflex is totally the opposite of innate reflex in the sense that a child that learns from a conditioned reflex is not automatic or triggered by instinct but rather his/her own positive or negative experiences that come from his/her environment. For example: When a child accidentally touches a lighted candle, the childwill feel the physical pain from his burning finger.