Menu

Children Living with HIV

0 Comment

There are 2 strains of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2. More often than not, it is HIV-1 that is identified among patients. Some patients may be positive to both types of viruses. HIV-2 infection is most commonly encountered in the Western part of Africa (Abdelmalek, 2011). HIV infection in children is rapidly progressive with poor prognosis.Research statement: HIV is a pandemic disease that has its implications on all aspects of life and affects every strata of the society. HIV infection in children is rapidly progressive with poor prognosis. The most common route of acquisition is perinatal transmission.A. Description of HIV infectionTransmission Vertical transmission is the most common route of acquisition of childhood HIV infection and without intervention, perinatal acquisition risk is 25- 40 percent (Abdelmalek, 2011). In United States, perinatal acquisition from mother accounts for more than 80 percent cases of childhood HIV infection (CDC, 2009). Perinatal transmission can occur any time, like in utero, in the peripartum period and during breast feeding. The transmissibility of HIV through breast milk is actually very less (WHO, 2007). However, cumulative exposure of the baby to cell-free HIV RNA is the main cause of postnatal transmission of HIV through breast feeding. Other means of transmission like transmission through blood and blood products and injections are very rare in developed countries like United States, but do exist in some developing countries (Abdelmalek, 2011). … II. Research statement: HIV is a pandemic disease that has its implications on all aspects of life and affects every strata of the society. HIV infection in children is rapidly progressive with poor prognosis. The most common route of acquisition is perinatal transmission. III. Evidence to support thesis A. Description of HIV infection 1. Transmission Vertical transmission is the most common route of acquisition of childhood HIV infection and without intervention, perinatal acquisition risk is 25- 40 percent (Abdelmalek, 2011). In United States, perinatal acquisition from mother accounts for more than 80 percent cases of childhood HIV infection (CDC, 2009). Perinatal transmission can occur any time, like in utero, in the peripartum period and during breast feeding. The transmissibility of HIV through breast milk is actually very less (WHO, 2007). However, cumulative exposure of the baby to cell-free HIV RNA is the main cause of postnatal transmission of HIV through breast feeding. Other means of transmission like transmission through blood and blood products and injections are very rare in developed countries like United States, but do exist in some developing countries (Abdelmalek, 2011). B. Pathophysiology HIV is a retrovirus that has several proteins, both structural and non-structural, which determine the interaction between the immune system of the host and the virus. The virus mainly attaches to the cells of the host through association of the surface glycoprotein with the CD4 molecule of the cells. It is because of this reason that HIV mainly infects cells with CD4, namely macrophages and lymphocytes. On entry of the virus core into the cytoplasm of the cell of the host, the reverse transcriptase of the virus copies the RNA of the