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Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14e (Robbins/Judge)Chapter 13
Power and Politics1) Which one of the following is not implied in the definition of power?A) influenceB) potentialC) dependencyD) actualizationE) controlAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Power refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. However, Acan have power over B only if A controls something Bdesires. Someone can thus have power but not use it; it is a capacity or potential. Probably the most important aspect of power is that it is a function of dependency.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.1 Contrast leadership and power.2) For power to exist, one person must have control over ________.A) peopleB) propertyC) knowledgeD) financesE) all of the aboveAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) For a power situation to exist, one has to have some control over resources that others need.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.1 Contrast leadership and power.3) Power is a function of ________.A) goal congruencyB) realizationC) inheritanceD) dependencyE) altruismAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Power is a function of dependency.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.1 Contrast leadership and power.4) Which of the following statements is true regarding power?A) A is said to have power over B if B controls something that A desires.B) The greater A’s dependence on B, the greater A’s power in the relationship.C) If A has the capacity to influence the behavior of B, then Ais said to have power over B.D) A can have power over B only if A is B’s leader.E) A can have power over B only when A and B have similar goals.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) If A has the capacity to influence the behavior of B then Ais said to have power over B. The most important aspect of power is that it is a function of dependency. The greater B’s dependence on A, the greater A’s power in the relationship.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.1 Contrast leadership and power.5) Which of the following terms best represents a point of difference between power and leadership?A) controlB) potentialC) cognitive dissonanceD) goal compatibilityE) negative affectAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Power does not require goal compatibility, merely dependence. Leadership, on the other hand, requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.1 Contrast leadership and power.6) Leadership requires ________.A) congruence between the goals of the leader and those being ledB) focus on tactics for gaining complianceC) a dependency of those being led on the leaderD) followers who share behavioral traits with their leadersE) a dependency of the leader on those being ledAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Power does not require goal compatibility, merely dependence. Leadership, on the other hand, requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.1 Contrast leadership and power.7) Leadership focuses on the ________.A) importance of lateral and upward influence patternsB) elimination of dependency in relationshipsC) downward influence of a leader on his or her followersD) ways to increase a leader’s followingE) resolution of conflicts among followersAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) One difference between power and leadership relates to the direction of influence. Leadership focuses on the downward influence on followers. It minimizes the importance of lateral and upward influence patterns. Power does not.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.1 Contrast leadership and power.8) Unlike leadership research, research on power tends to focus on ________.A) individual styles in using powerB) strategies for goal attainmentC) tactics for gaining complianceD) the administration of rewardsE) gaining dependencyAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Research on power focuses on tactics for gaining compliance. It goes beyond the individual as the exerciser of power because groups as well as individuals can use power to control other individuals or groups.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.1 Contrast leadership and power.9) Unlike power, leadership requires a significant degree of goal compatibility.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Power does not require goal compatibility, merely dependence. Leadership, on the other hand, requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.1 Contrast leadership and power.10) Leadership focuses on the lateral and upward influence patterns.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Leadership focuses on the downward influence on followers. It minimizes the importance of lateral and upward influence patterns.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.1 Contrast leadership and power.11) Power does not require goal compatibility.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Power does not require goal compatibility, merely dependence. Leadership, on the other hand, requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.1 Contrast leadership and power.12) Contrast leadership and power.Answer:  Power does not require goal compatibility, merely dependence. Leadership, on the other hand, requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led. A second difference relates to the direction of influence. Leadership focuses on the downward influence on one’s followers. It minimizes the importance of lateral and upward influence patterns. Power does not. Still another difference deals with research emphasis. Leadership research, for the most part, emphasizes style. It seeks answers to such questions as: How supportive should a leader be? How much decision making should be shared with followers? The research on power encompasses a broader area and focuses on tactics for gaining compliance. Power can be used by groups as well as by individuals to control other individuals or groups.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.1 Contrast leadership and power.13) The two general groupings of power are ________.A) informational and personalB) formal and informalC) informal and legitimateD) personal and formalE) direct and indirectAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The bases or sources of power are divided into two general groupings, formal and personal. These two groupings are then broken down into more specific categories.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.14) ________ power is based on the fear of the negative results from failing to comply.A) LegitimateB) CoerciveC) PunitiveD) ReferentE) AbusiveAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The coercive power base depends on fear of the negative results from failing to comply. It rests on the application, or the threat of application, of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain, frustration through restriction of movement, or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.15) At the organizational level, if Jenn can dismiss, suspend, or demote Colby, assuming Colby values his or her job, Jenn has ________ power over Colby.A) rewardB) legitimateC) coerciveD) expertE) referentAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The coercive power base depends on fear of the negative results from failing to comply. At the organizational level, A has coercive power over Bif A can dismiss, suspend, or demote B, assuming B values his or her job.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.16) Which of the five sources of power is most likely to negatively affect an employee’s job satisfaction?A) rewardB) legitimateC) coerciveD) expertE) referentAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Research has shown that coercive power is negatively related to employee satisfaction and commitment.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.17) You know that the vice-president has the authority to accept or reject your report. This is part of his ________ power.A) rewardB) coerciveC) expertD) legitimateE) personalAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Legitimate power represents the formal authority to control and use organizational resources based on structural position in the organization.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.18) When a bank robber points a gun at a bank employee, his base of power is ________.A) coerciveB) referentC) positionalD) authoritativeE) expertAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The coercive power base depends on fear of the negative results from failing to comply. It rests on the application, or the threat of application, of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain, frustration through restriction of movement, or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. The bank teller is forced to comply.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.19) Larry can assign Oliver work activities that Oliver finds unpleasant. Larry possesses ________ power over Oliver.A) rewardB) expertC) legitimateD) coerciveE) referentAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The coercive power base depends on fear of the negative results from failing to comply. If A can assign B work activities B finds unpleasant or treat B in a manner B finds embarrassing, Apossesses coercive power over B.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.20) The opposite of coercive power is ________ power.A) referentB) rewardC) legitimateD) charismaticE) expertAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The opposite of coercive power is reward power, with which people comply because it produces positive benefits; someone who can distribute rewards others view as valuable will have power over them. These rewards can be either financial, such as controlling pay rates, or nonfinancial, including recognition, or promotions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.21) If your superior tells you that she will offer you a raise provided you perform additional work beyond the requirements of your job, he/she is exercising ________ power.A) legitimateB) coerciveC) rewardD) personalE) reflectiveAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The opposite of coercive power is reward power, with which people comply because it produces positive benefits; someone who can distribute rewards others view as valuable will have power over them. These rewards can be either financial, such as controlling pay rates, or nonfinancial, including recognition, or promotions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.22) Legitimate power is based on ________ in the organization.A) the ability to provide rewardsB) interpersonal trustC) structural positionD) expert knowledgeE) respect and admirationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) In formal groups and organizations, probably the most common access to one or more of the power bases is through legitimate power. It represents the formal authority to control and use organizational resources based on structural position in the organization.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.23) Which of the following types of power requires acceptance of the leader’s authority by members of the organization?A) referentB) coerciveC) legitimateD) expertE) charismaticAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Legitimate power is broader than the power to coerce and reward. Specifically, it includes members’ acceptance of the authority of a position.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.24) The power that the College Dean has been granted by the University over the faculty is referred to as ________ power.A) academicB) positionalC) legitimateD) referentE) charismaticAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Legitimate power represents the formal authority to control and use organizational resources based on structural position in the organization. It includes members’ acceptance of the authority of a position. A College Dean holds legitimate power.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.25) Which of the following statements is true regarding legitimate power?A) Legitimate power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person.B) Legitimate power comes from an individual’s unique characteristics.C) Legitimate power is broader than the power to coerce and reward.D) Celebrities who endorse products in commercials wield legitimate power over people.E) Legitimate power is a type of personal power.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) In formal groups and organizations, probably the most common access to one or more of the power bases is through legitimate power. It represents the formal authority to control and use organizational resources based on structural position in the organization. Legitimate power is broader than the power to coerce and reward.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.26) Which of the following types of power can be categorized as personal power?A) coerciveB) legitimateC) rewardD) referentE) positionalAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Personal power comes from an individual’s unique characteristics. There are two bases of personal power: expert power and referent power.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.27) Most of us follow our doctor’s advice because our doctor has ________ power.A) legitimateB) rewardC) referentD) expertE) coerciveAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Expert power is influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge. As jobs become more specialized, we become increasingly dependent on experts to achieve goals. It is generally acknowledged that physicians have expertise and hence expert power: Most of us follow our doctor’s advice.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.28) ________ power is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits.A) CoerciveB) LegitimateC) ReferentD) ExpertE) RewardAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Referent power is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. If I like, respect, and admire you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.29) Your colleagues at work are constantly talking about the vice-president in your region. He is perceived throughout the organization as a ruthless man who is not to be antagonized. It is necessary for you to bring him a report, and you are very nervous about having to deal with him. The vice president’s major base of power seems to be ________.A) rewardB) coerciveC) referentD) expertE) personalAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The coercive power base depends on fear of the negative results from failing to comply. It rests on the application, or the threat of application, of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain, frustration through restriction of movement, or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs.Diff: 3AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.30) Your immediate supervisor is a nice person. He helps you solve your problems and gives valuable advice. You admire your supervisor and aspire to become like him. The power that your supervisor possesses over you is known as ________ power.A) transactionalB) coerciveC) expertD) rewardE) referentAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Referent power is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits.Diff: 1AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.31) John is good with numbers, but he wasn’t sure what he wanted to study in college. During his senior year in high school he had a math teacher, Mr. Roury. John liked his teaching style and got interested in numbers. He also joined the Math Club to spend more time with Mr. Roury. As a result, John went on to study math and later engineering in college, and today tells his kids that he owes his career to Mr. Roury. Mr. Roury exhibited ________ power over John.A) positionalB) referentC) coerciveD) rewardE) legitimateAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Referent power is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. If a person is respected and admired he can exercise power and influence over others that desire to please him. John admired Mr. Roury and wanted to please him, which influenced his career choice.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.32) Celebrities are paid millions of dollars to endorse products in commercials because the advertisers believe the celebrities have ________ power.A) coerciveB) referentC) expertD) legitimateE) rewardAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Referent power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person. It helps explain, for instance, why celebrities are paid millions of dollars to endorse products in commercials.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.33) Of the bases of power, research indicates that ________ power is most effective.A) personalB) coerciveC) rewardD) legitimateE) positionalAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Of the three bases of formal power (coercive, reward, legitimate) and two bases of personal power (expert, referent), research suggests pretty clearly that the personal sources of power are most effective.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.34) People especially likely to comply with soft power tactics tend to ________.A) be more action orientedB) have greater desire for controlC) be extrinsically motivatedD) have low self-esteemE) be more focused on getting along with others than with getting their own wayAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) People especially likely to comply with soft power tactics tend to be more reflective, are intrinsically motivated, have high self-esteem, and have greater desire for control.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.35) Which of the following types of power is most likely to be negatively related to employee satisfaction and commitment?A) expert powerB) reward powerC) legitimate powerD) coercive powerE) referent power Answer:  DExplanation:  D) The coercive power base depends on fear of the negative results from failing to comply. It is negatively related to employee satisfaction and commitment.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.36) Which of the following skills best represents the ability of people to influence others to enhance their own objectives?A) analytical skillB) critical thinking skillC) political skillD) reflective thinking skillE) cognitive skillAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Political skills of people indicate their ability to influence others to enhance their own objectives.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.37) Political behaviors usually ________.A) lie outside of an individual’s specified job requirementsB) are counter-productive to individual goalsC) are seen only in large organizationsD) are frowned upon by organizational leadersE) are expected as part of each job requirement Answer:  AExplanation:  A) Political behavior is defined as activities that are not required as part of a person’s formal role in the organization but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.38) ________ occurs when people within organizations use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests.A) Legitimate political behavior B) PolitickingC) Illegitimate political behaviorD) SabotageE) Whistle-blowingAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Most decisions in an organization have to be made in a climate of ambiguity where facts are rarely fully objective and thus are open to interpretation. Under such circumstances, people within organizations will use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests. That creates the activities called politicking.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.39) Personal power is based on an individual’s position in an organization. It can come from the ability to coerce or reward, or from formal authority.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Formal power is based on an individual’s position in an organization. It can come from the ability to coerce or reward, or from formal authority.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.40) Legitimate power is influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Legitimate power represents the formal authority to control and use organizational resources based on structural position in the organization. Expert power is influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.41) Expert power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Referent power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person. Expert power is influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.42) List and discuss the bases of formal power.Answer:  Formal power can come from the ability to coerce or reward, from formal authority, or from control of information.a) Coercive power: The coercive power base is dependent on fear. One reacts to this power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if one failed to comply. A has coercive power over B if A can dismiss, suspend, or demote B, assuming that B values his or her job.b) Reward power: The opposite of coercive power is reward power. People comply with the wishes or directives of another because doing so produces positive benefits. Therefore, one who can distribute rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others. These rewards can be either financial or nonfinancial.c) Legitimate power: In formal groups and organizations, probably the most common access to one or more of the power bases is through legitimate power. It represents the formal authority to control and use organizational resources based on structural position in the organization.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.43) List and discuss the bases of personal power.Answer:  Personal power comes from an individual’s unique characteristics. Three bases of personal power are expertise, the respect and admiration of others, and charisma.a) Expert power is influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge. Expertise has become one of the most powerful sources of influence as the world has become more technologically oriented.b) Referent power is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. If I like, respect, and admire you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.2 Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.44) Which of the following works to create resource dependence?A) ImportanceB) ScarcityC) NonsubstitutabilityD) Both B and CE) All A, B, and CAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) The importance, scarcity, and nonsubstitutability of a resource all work together to create resource dependence. While all need to be present, they are not necessarily equal across all situations.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.3 Explain the role of dependence in power relationships.45) Which of the following is a tool to assess the exchange of resources and dependencies within an organization?A) Theory XB) Social Network AnalysisC) Resource InterdependenceD) Stoute’s Expectation TheoryE) Organizational ChartAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) This method examines patterns of communication among organizational members to identify how information flows between them.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.3 Explain the role of dependence in power relationships.46) Within a social network, each individual or group is called a ________, and the links between the groups are called ________.A) clique; bondsB) bond; nodesC) node; tiesD) tie; statusE) status; cliquesAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Within a social network, or connections between people who share professional interests, each individual or group is called a node, and the links between nodes are called ties. When nodes communicate or exchange resources frequently, they are said to have very strong ties. Other nodes that are not engaged in direct communication with one another achieve resource flows through intermediary nodes.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.3 Explain the role of dependence in power relationships.47) A sociogram is another form of an organizational chart.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  While both represent structure within the organization, the difference is that a formal organization chart shows how authority is supposed to flow, whereas a sociogram shows how resources really flow in an organization.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.3 Explain the role of dependence in power relationships.48) The greater amount of a resource one possess, the more power they will have.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Just because one possess a resource does not mean that they have power. The resource needs to be in demand by others in order for power to exist.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.3 Explain the role of dependence in power relationships.49) Gordon is a successful restaurant owner in Las Vegas, where he owns four different restaurants. Though each restaurant has a different flare, Gordon is world-renowned for his steaks and each of the four restaurants serves steak on the menu. How can Gordon avoid giving power to people outside of his organization?Answer:  Responses may vary slightly but should be centered on Gordon not becoming resource dependent on the beef suppliers in the Las Vegas area. A good idea would be for Gordon to seek out four different suppliers for each of the restaurants or perhaps to even to a backward vertical integration and become the owner of his own cattle farm.Diff: 2AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.3 Explain the role of dependence in power relationships.50) How might the concept of scarcity affect you when you are looking for employment prior to or after graduation?Answer:  While some responses might simply say that jobs might be scarce, this is not a fully appropriate response. An appropriate response should discuss the relationship between the demand for the major/skill set that the student possess in relation to the availability of jobs in the marketplace.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.3 Explain the role of dependence in power relationships.51) Please discuss one way in which a company might implement a social network analysis within an organization.Answer:  While responses will vary, there should be some basis in one of the following foundations. Some organizations keep track of the flow of e-mail communications or document sharing across departments. These big-data tools are an easy way to gather objective information about how individuals exchange information. Other organizations look at data from human resources (HR) information systems, analyzing how supervisors and subordinates interact with one another. These data sources can produce sociograms showing how resources and power flow. Leaders can then identify powerful brokers who exert the strongest influence on many groups, and address these key individuals.Diff: 2AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.3 Explain the role of dependence in power relationships.52) Which of the following power tactics involves increasing the target’s support by involving him or her in decision making?A) personal appealsB) exchangeC) consultationD) ingratiationE) pressureAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The power tactic of consultation involves increasing the target’s support by involving him or her in decision making.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.53) Power tactics are defined as ________.A) approaches for influencing goal settingB) techniques for translating power bases into specific actionC) strategies for gathering and maintaining supportD) characteristics of organizational structureE) approaches for reducing conflictAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Power tactics are defined as ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions. They are the specific options that people have for influencing their bosses, coworkers, or employees.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.54) Which of the following is not considered to be a power tactic?A) consultationB) substitutionC) rational persuasionD) ingratiationE) coalitionAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The nine power tactics are legitimacy, rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, consultation, exchange, personal appeals, ingratiation, pressure, and coalitions. Substitution is not a power tactic.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.55) Reactive and protective behaviors designed to avoid action, blame, or change are termed ________.A) zero-sum approachB) defensive behaviors C) protectionismD) impression management E) shielding bias Answer:  BExplanation:  B) When employees see politics as a threat, they often respond with defensive behaviors, which are reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action, blame, or change. Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.56) Evidence indicates people in different countries tend to prefer different power tactics. Chinese managers prefer ________.A) rational persuasionB) exchangeC) ingratiationD) coalitionE) inspirational appealsAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) United States managers prefer rational appeal, whereas Chinese managers preferred coalition tactics.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.57) Joe comes to you with a request for funds for a project. He reminds you that company policy supports his position. He is using the tactic of ________.A) coalitionB) consultationC) ingratiationD) legitimacyE) pressureAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Legitimacy means relying on your authority position or saying a request accords with organizational policies or rules. Joe is relying on legitimacy.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.58) James approaches his supervisor with data and a logical presentation supporting his request for additional personnel. Which of the following power tactics is used by James?A) consultationB) legitimacyC) rational persuasionD) inspirational appealE) exchangeAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Rational persuasion is presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is reasonable. James is using rational persuasion to try to get what he wants.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.59) Which of the following power tactics tends to backfire and is typically the least effective of the nine power tactics?A) coalitionsB) exchangeC) pressureD) rational persuasionE) consultationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Pressure tends to backfire and is typically the least effective of the nine tactics.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.60) The power tactic of using flattery and creating goodwill before making a request is known as ________.A) ingratiationB) consultationC) inspirational appealD) motivational appealE) affective appealAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Ingratiation is defined as using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request, hoping that the kindness will help get what is desired.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.61) Vivian has not been handling one portion of her duties in a satisfactory manner. As a result, her manager threatens to withhold her promotion. Which power tactic is being used by Vivian’s manager?A) exchangeB) ingratiationC) pressureD) personal appealsE) inspirational appealsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Pressure is the use of warnings, repeated demands, and threats to try to get what is desired. It is usually applied in a downward direction.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.62) Which of the following power tactics is more effective when the audience is highly interested in the outcomes of a decision process?A) ingratiationB) consultationC) personal appealsD) exchangeE) pressureAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, and consultation tend to be the most effective power tactics, especially when the audience is highly interested in the outcomes of a decision process.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.63) When the power tactic of ________ works, it’s generally downward only.A) exchangeB) coalitionC) ingratiationD) pressureE) legitimacyAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Pressure tends to backfire and is typically the least effective of the nine tactics. When pressure works, it’s generally downward only.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.64) Which of the following power tactics can be used most effectively for exerting lateral influence?A) legitimacyB) inspirational appealC) coalitionD) ingratiationE) pressureAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Personal appeals and coalitions are most effective as lateral influence.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.65) ________ is the only power tactic that is effective for exerting upward influence, downward influence, and lateral influence.A) LegitimacyB) ExchangeC) IngratiationD) PressureE) Rational persuasionAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Rational persuasion is the only tactic effective across organizational levels.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.66) Sally finds out that her salary is lower than her peers. She discusses this with her boss, showing him how her performance has increased company revenues. As a result, she gets a substantial raise. Which of the following power tactics did she use?A) pressureB) inspirational appealsC) exchangeD) rational persuasionE) legitimacyAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Rational persuasion is an effective tactic for exerting upward influence. It is the only tactic effective across organizational levels.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.67) Which of the following influence tactics is considered a “harder” tactic that emphasizes formal power and incurs greater costs and risks?A) personal appealB) coalitionC) rational persuasionD) inspirational appealE) consultationAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) You’re more likely to be effective if you begin with “softer” tactics that rely on personal power, such as personal and inspirational appeals, rational persuasion, and consultation. If these fail, you can move to “harder” tactics, such as exchange, coalitions, and pressure, which emphasize formal power and incur greater costs and risks.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.68) Rational persuasion is the only power tactic that is effective across all organizational levels.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  The effectiveness of some influence tactics depends on the direction of influence but rational persuasion is the only tactic effective across organizational levels.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.69) People in individualistic countries tend to see power in social terms and as a legitimate means of helping others.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  People in different countries prefer different power tactics. Those from individualistic countries tend to see power in personalized terms and as a legitimate means of advancing their personal ends, whereas those in collectivistic countries see power in social terms and as a legitimate means of helping others.Diff: 1AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.70) People especially likely to comply with hard power tactics tend to be intrinsically motivated.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  People likely to comply with hard power tactics are more action oriented and extrinsically motivated and are more focused on getting along with others than with getting their own way.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.71) You’re more likely to be effective if you begin with “harder” tactics and move to “softer” tactics only if the harder tactics fail.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  You’re more likely to be effective if you begin with “softer” tactics and move to “harder” tactics only if the softer tactics fail.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.72) What power tactics can employees use to translate their power bases into specific actions and how does each one work?Answer:  Research has identified nine distinct tactics of political influence.a) Legitimacy involves relying on one’s authority position or stressing that a request is in accordance with organizational policies or rules.b) Rational persuasion involves presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate that a request is reasonable.c) Inspirational appeals involve developing emotional commitment by appealing to a target’s values, needs, hopes, and aspirations.d) Consultation involves increasing a target’s motivation and support by involving him or her in deciding how a plan or change will be implemented.e) Exchange involves rewarding targets with benefits or favors in exchange for following a request.f) Personal appeals involve asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty.g) Ingratiation involves using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request.h) Pressure involves using warnings, repeated demands, and threats.i) Finally, coalitions involve enlisting the aid of other people to persuade a target or using the support of others as a reason for the target to agree.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.73) Discuss the effectiveness of various influence tactics.Answer:  The effectiveness of some influence tactics depends on the direction of influence. Rational persuasion is the only tactic effective across organizational levels. Inspirational appeals work best as a downward-influencing tactic with subordinates. When pressure works, it’s generally downward only. Personal appeals and coalitions are most effective as lateral influence. Other factors that affect the effectiveness of influence include the sequencing of tactics, a person’s skill in using the tactic, and the organizational culture. You’re more likely to be effective if you begin with “softer” tactics that rely on personal power, such as personal and inspirational appeals. If these fail, you can move to “harder” tactics, such as exchange and coalitions. People differ in their political skill, or their ability to influence others to enhance their own objectives. The politically skilled are more effective users of all of the influence tactics. The organizational culture in which a person works will have a bearing on which tactics are considered appropriate. Some cultures encourage participation and consultation, some encourage reason, and still others rely on pressure. People who fit the culture of the organization tend to obtain more influence.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.4 Identify power or influence tactics and their contingencies.74) According to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the definition of sexual harassment includes all of the following except which?A) unwelcome sexual advancesB) requests for sexual favorsC) verbal conduct of a sexual natureD) physical conduct of a sexual natureE) distinguishing based on genderAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Distinguishing based on gender is a form of discrimination, but does not constitute sexual harassment. Some sexual harassment is also a form of discrimination.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.5 Identify the causes and consequences of abuse of power.75) From the mid-1990s through to the early 2010s, sexual harassment claims filed by men have:A) decreased by roughly 10 percentB) decreased by roughly 5 percentC) men cannot make claims of sexual harassmentD) increased by roughly 5 percentE) increased by roughly 10 percentAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) While the overall number of sexual harassment claims have decreased by roughly 10 percent since the mid-1990s, the number of claims made by men has increased by roughly 5 percent in that same time period.Diff: 1AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.5 Identify the causes and consequences of abuse of power.76) The concept of sexual harassment is consistent across cultures.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  While most nations have some sort of polices to protect workers from sexual harassment, the actual definition of sexual harassment varies across cultures.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.5 Identify the causes and consequences of abuse of power.77) Employees exhibiting which of the following traits are more likely to engage in political behavior?A) lack of sensitivity to social cuesB) external locus of controlC) low need for powerD) Machiavellian personalityE) low self-monitoringAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The Machiavellian personality—characterized by the will to manipulate and the desire for power—is comfortable using politics as a means to further his or her self-interest.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.6 Describe how politics work in organizations.78) If an individual ________, then he is less likely to engage in illegitimate political behavior.A) has invested a lot in the organization in terms of time and effortsB) possesses a scarce skill or knowledgeC) has influential contacts outside the organizationD) does not expect any future benefits from the organizationE) has an external locus of controlAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) An individual’s investment in the organization, perceived alternatives, and expectations of success influence the degree to which he or she will pursue illegitimate means of political action. The more a person expects increased future benefits from the organization, the more that person has to lose if forced out and the less likely he or she is to use illegitimate means.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.6 Describe how politics work in organizations.79) Which of the following factors encourages politicking?A) clear performance evaluation systemsB) role clarityC) zero-sum reward allocation practicesD) increase in organizational resourcesE) low pressures for performanceAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Cultures characterized by low trust, role ambiguity, unclear performance evaluation systems, zero-sum reward allocation practices, democratic decision making, high pressures for performance, and self-serving senior managers will create breeding grounds for politicking.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.6 Describe how politics work in organizations.80) Which of the following organizational factors encourages political behavior?A) use of objective criteria in the appraisalB) using multiple outcomes to measure performanceC) allowing significant time to pass between the time of an action and its appraisalD) avoiding the zero-sum approach for resource allocationE) ensuring role clarityAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The more organizations use subjective criteria in the appraisal, emphasize a single outcome measure, or allow significant time to pass between the time of an action and its appraisal, the greater the likelihood that an employee can get away with politicking.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.6 Describe how politics work in organizations.81) To avoid politicking during performance evaluations, an organization should ________.A) use subjective criteriaB) use democratic decision makingC) use a single outcome measureD) use objective criteriaE) allow a long time lapse between the time of an action and its appraisalAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The more organizations use subjective criteria in the appraisal, emphasize a single outcome measure, or allow significant time to pass between the time of an action and its appraisal, the greater the likelihood that an employee can get away with politicking.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.6 Describe how politics work in organizations.82) Extraverts tend to be more influential in team-oriented organizations.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  People who fit the culture of the organization tend to obtain more influence. Specifically, extraverts tend to be more influential in team-oriented organizations, and highly conscientious people are more influential in organizations that value working alone on technical tasks.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.6 Describe how politics work in organizations.83) The most important factor leading to politics within organizations is the realization that most of the “facts” used to allocate the limited resources are not open to interpretation.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Maybe the most important factor leading to politics within organizations is the realization that most of the “facts” used to allocate the limited resources are open to interpretation. What, for instance, is goodperformance? What’s an adequate improvement? What constitutes an unsatisfactoryjob? One person’s “selfless effort to benefit the organization” is seen by another as a “blatant attempt to further one’s interest.”Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.6 Describe how politics work in organizations.84) Describe the various organizational factors that are related to political behavior.Answer:  Political activity is probably more a function of the organization’s characteristics than of individual difference variables. When an organization’s resources are declining, when the existing pattern of resources is changing, and when there is opportunity for promotions, politics is more likely to surface. In addition, cultures characterized by low trust, role ambiguity, unclear performance evaluation systems, zero-sum reward allocation practices, democratic decision making, high pressures for performance, and self-serving senior managers will create breeding grounds for politicking.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.6 Describe how politics work in organizations.85) How do people react to organizational politics?Answer:  Strong evidence indicates that perceptions of organizational politics are negatively related to job satisfaction. The perception of politics also tends to increase job anxiety and stress. This seems due to the perception that, by not engaging in politics, a person may be losing ground to others who are active politickers or, conversely, to the additional pressures felt from having entered into and competing in the political arena. When politicking becomes too much to handle, it can lead employees to quit. Finally, evidence suggests that politics leads to self-reported declines in employee performance, perhaps because employees perceive political environments to be unfair, which demotivates them. Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.6 Describe how politics work in organizations.86) Which of the following is a self-focused impression management technique?A) flatteryB) enhancementC) apologyD) excusesE) conformityAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Enhancement and self-promotion are self-focused impression management techniques.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.87) Which of the following statements is true regarding impression management (IM) techniques?A) During interviews, applicants appear to use ingratiation more than self-promotion.B) Ingratiation is negatively related to performance ratings.C) Those who self-promote receive higher performance evaluations.D) Ingratiation works well in interviews.E) Giving excuses is considered as an assertive IM technique.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Ingratiation works well in interviews. Applicants who compliment the interviewer, agree with his or her opinions, and emphasize areas of fit do better than those who don’t.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.88) Delray is about to sit down with his boss for his performance review. Which IM technique should Delray avoid using in the performance evaluation?A) ingratiationB) self-promotionC) flatteryD) conformityE) rationalizationAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Self-promotion appears to backfire during performance evaluations. Those who self-promote actually seem to receive lower performance evaluations.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.89) Jerrod is relatively new to Xenon Corporation and wants to make sure that he makes a good impression on his coworkers and supervisor. He agrees with the supervisor’s opinion most of the time and constantly compliments others about their good work. Jerrod is attempting to use ________.A) illegitimate political behaviorB) impression managementC) defensive behaviorD) referral powerE) expert powerAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Impression management (IM) is the process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them. Jarrod hopes to control his supervisor’s opinion of him by ingratiating himself.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.90) A political map is useful for ________.A) selecting which candidate to support for officeB) selecting which relationships can influence your careerC) determining which policies should be in placeD) all of the aboveE) none of the aboveAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Visualizing which relationships in the organization can aid you in advancing is useful and necessary for success.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.91) Jerrod is relatively new to Xenon Corporation and wants to make sure that he makes a good impression on his coworkers and supervisor. He agrees with the supervisor’s opinion most of the time and constantly compliments others about their good work. Jerrod is engaging in which of the following impression management techniques as far as his supervisor is concerned?A) enhancementB) self-promotionC) excusesD) conformityE) apologizingAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Conformity is agreeing with someone else’s opinion to gain his or her approval. It is a form of ingratiation.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.92) Which of the following is most likely to help Jerrod earn higher performance evaluations?A) apologiesB) ingratiationC) excusesD) buffingE) self-promotionAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Ingratiation is positively related to performance ratings, meaning those who ingratiate with their supervisors get higher performance evaluations.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.93) Jerrod is engaging in which of the following impression management techniques as far as his supervisor is concerned?A) enhancement B) self-promotionC) excuses D) conformityE) apologizing Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Conformity is agreeing with someone else’s opinion to gain his or her approval. It is a form of ingratiation.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.94) Which of the following questions can aid in determining if someone is engaged in unethical politicking?A) What would be the point of politicking?B) Would politicking be worth the risk to the person?C) How are others being affected by this alleged politicking?D) Both A and BE) Both A and CAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The distinction between ethical and unethical politicking can often be more clearly defined by the motives of the person engaging in the activity.Diff: 3AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoningQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.95) What is the relationship between unethical politicking and impression management?A) Unethical politicking is always the result of impression management.B) Impression management may be the motive for unethical politicking.C) Impression management usually causes someone to unethically politick.D) Unethical politicking and impression management go hand in hand.E) There is no relationship between unethical politicking and impression management.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) Be it an outright lie or a distorted fact, one might engage in unethical politicking in an effort to gain a favorable impression. The two ideas though are not mutually exclusive.Diff: 3AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoningQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.96) Which of the following would be an example of politicking?A) complimenting your supervisor on her new carB) stating that you were an NCAA athlete when you only played intramuralsC) accepting a compliment for work you did not doD) All are examples of unethical politicking.E) None are examples of unethical politicking.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Each activity is something which may or may not be true but works to create a favorable impression for the speaker.Diff: 3AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning; Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.97) Which of the following would be an example of unethical politicking?A) complimenting your supervisor on her new carB) stating that you were an NCAA athlete when you only played intramuralsC) accepting a compliment for work you did not doD) All are examples of unethical politicking.E) Only B and C are examples of unethical politicking.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Responses B and C are lies and therefore are unethical.Diff: 3AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoning; Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.98) Marilyn is the department head for a large call center and is responsible for conducting quarterly performance evaluations on her employees. While a good portion of the evaluation is based on areas such as friendliness, punctuality, and customer ratings, roughly half of the appraisal is based on call volume and the conversion of callers to customers. An employee’s evaluations are used to determine quarterly raises. Algemar and Nick both work for Marilyn. Marilyn feels that she is a mentor for Nick while she feels that she simply inherited Algemar from another department; thus, Marilyn sometimes strikes from Nick’s call records customers who are extremely difficult or perhaps too set against buying the product. For the last quarter, Marilyn awarded Nick a raise while she did not award one to Algemar. Marilyn’s awarding Nick a raise based on his evaluations could best be called ________.A) politickingB) unethical politickingC) identity managementD) self-servingE) All are logical responses.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) Marilyn has clearly acted unethically because she knowingly used false information as the basis for a raise.Diff: 3AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoningQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.99) Marilyn is the department head for a large call center and is responsible for conducting quarterly performance evaluations on her employees. While a good portion of the evaluation is based on areas such as friendliness, punctuality, and customer ratings, roughly half of the appraisal is based on call volume and the conversion of callers to customers. An employee’s evaluations are used to determine quarterly raises. Algemar and Nick both work for Marilyn. Marilyn feels that she is a mentor for Nick while she feels that she simply inherited Algemar from another department; thus, Marilyn sometimes strikes from Nick’s call records customers who are extremely difficult or perhaps too set against buying the product. For the last quarter, Marilyn awarded Nick a raise while she did not award one to Algemar. Marilyn’s striking the difficult customers from Nick’s record could most logically be called ________.A) politickingB) unethical politickingC) identity managementD) self-servingE) All are logical responses.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) The act of striking the callers from Nick’s record is not necessarily unethical as it is unclear what Marilyn has to gain from such action.Diff: 3AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoningQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.100) Marilyn is the department head for a large call center and is responsible for conducting quarterly performance evaluations on her employees. While a good portion of the evaluation is based on areas such as friendliness, punctuality, and customer ratings, roughly half of the appraisal is based on call volume and the conversion of callers to customers. An employee’s evaluations are used to determine quarterly raises. Algemar and Nick both work for Marilyn. Marilyn feels that she is a mentor for Nick while she feels that she simply inherited Algemar from another department; thus, Marilyn sometimes strikes from Nick’s call records customers who are extremely difficult or perhaps too set against buying the product. For the last quarter, Marilyn awarded Nick a raise while she did not award one to Algemar. Nick’s accepting the raise based on his performance evaluation could best be described as ________.A) politickingB) unethical politickingC) identity managementD) both A and CE) both B and CAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The altered performance appraisals are not of Nick’s creation and thus his behavior cannot be called truly unethical. While perhaps questionable, Nick has to decide if becoming a whistle blower is worth risking his identity within the organization.Diff: 3AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoningQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.101) According to various studies around the world, higher levels of political skill are associated with higher levels of perceived ________.A) citizenship behaviorsB) counterproductive work behaviorsC) social networkingD) resource scarcityE) job performanceAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Studies have shown that those which higher levels of political skills are more likely to be viewed as successful in their work.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.102) When two organizations with very political environments interact with one another, studies have shown ________.A) that the two organizations will be unable to work togetherB) that the two organizations will eventually mergeC) that the two organizations will be harmed in collaborative projectsD) that the two organizations will be benefited in collaborative projectsE) that the two organizations will solve their issues prior to moving forwardAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The differing cultures of the organizations create different power dynamics and thus the desired outcomes of the collaboration can be decidedly different.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.103) In which type of interview setting would Impression Management techniques prove to be most effective?A) a highly structured interview just between the interviewer and the candidateB) a highly structured interview which featured several interviewers and the candidateC) a highly structured group interview which featured several interviewers and candidatesD) an unstructured interview just between the interviewer and the candidateE) Impression management can be highly effective regardless of the interview setting.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Manipulative behaviors such as IM are more likely to have an effect in ambiguous and unstructured interviews.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.104) Some individuals engage in more politically oriented behaviors simply because they are good at it.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Some individuals read interpersonal interactions well, fit their behavior to situational needs, and excel at networking. These people are often indirectly rewarded for their political efforts.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.105) Employees who self-promote receive lower performance evaluations than employees who ingratiate.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Ingratiation is positively related to performance ratings, meaning those who ingratiate with their supervisors get higher performance evaluations. However, self-promotion appears to backfire: Those who self-promote actually seem to receive lower performance evaluations.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.106) Employees with an internal locus of control are more likely to engage in political behavior.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Employees with internal locus of control believe that they can control their environment and they are more prone to take a proactive stance and attempt to manipulate situations in their favor.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.107) What are the various individual factors that make a person more likely to engage in political behavior?Answer:  At the individual level, researchers have identified certain personality traits, needs, and other factors likely to be related to political behavior. In terms of traits, employees who are high self-monitors, possess an internal locus of control, and have a high need for power are more likely to engage in political behavior. The high self-monitor is more sensitive to social cues, exhibits higher levels of social conformity, and is more likely to be skilled in political behavior than the low self-monitor. Because they believe they can control their environment, individuals with an internal locus of control are more prone to taking a proactive stance and attempt to manipulate situations in their favor. Not surprisingly, the Machiavellian personality, characterized by the will to manipulate and the desire for power, is comfortable using politics as a means to further his or her self-interest.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.108) What is impression management? Who is more likely to engage in impression management?Answer:  The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them is called impression management. High self-monitors are more likely to engage in impression management. Low self-monitors tend to present images of themselves that are consistent with their personalities, regardless of the beneficial or detrimental effects for them. In contrast, high self-monitors are good at reading situations and molding their appearances and behavior to fit each situation.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.109) Describe, with example, the self-focused impression management techniques.Answer:  Self-promotion and enhancement are the two self-focused impression management techniques.Self-promotion: Highlighting one’s best qualities, downplaying one’s deficits, and calling attention to one’s achievements. For example: A salesperson tells his boss, “Matt worked unsuccessfully for three years to try to get that account. I sewed it up in six weeks. I’m the best closer this company has.”Enhancement: Claiming that something you did is more valuable than most other members of the organizations would think. For example: A journalist tells his editor, “My work on this celebrity divorce story was really a major boost to our sales” (even though the story only made it to page 3 in the entertainment section).Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.110) Describe impression management (IM) techniques and the impact they have on interview success.Answer:  The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them is called impression management. The evidence indicates IM behavior works. In one study, interviewers felt that those applicants for a position as a customer service representative who used IM techniques performed better in the interview, and they seemed somewhat more inclined to hire these people. It was the IM techniques alone that influenced the interviewers. It didn’t seem to matter if applicants were well or poorly qualified. If they used IM techniques, they did better in the interview.Research indicates that some IM techniques work better than others in the interview. Researchers have compared applicants who used IM techniques that focused on promoting one’s accomplishments (called self-promotion) to applicants who used techniques that focused on complimenting the interviewer and finding areas of agreement (referred to as ingratiation). In general, applicants appear to use self-promotion more than ingratiation. What’s more, self-promotion tactics may be more important to interviewing success. Applicants who work to create an appearance of competence by enhancing their accomplishments, taking credit for successes, and explaining away failures do better in interviews. These effects reach beyond the interview: Applicants who use more self-promotion tactics also seem to get more follow-up job-site visits, even after adjusting for grade-point average, gender, and job type. Ingratiation also works well in interviews, meaning that applicants who compliment the interviewer, agree with his or her opinions, and emphasize areas of fit do better than those who don’t.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  13.7 Identify the causes, consequences, and ethics of political behavior.