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Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14e (Robbins/Judge)Chapter 11
Communication1) Before communication can take place it needs a ________.A) purposeB) channelC) receiverD) filterE) decoderAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Before communication can take place it needs a purpose, a message to be conveyed between a sender and a receiver. The key parts of the communication process are (1) the sender, (2) encoding, (3) the message, (4) the channel, (5) decoding, (6) the receiver, (7) noise, and (8) feedback.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.2) In a communication process, the ________ initiates a message by encoding a thought.A) receiverB) decoderC) channelD) senderE) signalAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) In a communication process, the sender initiates a message by encoding a thought.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.3) Mary telephones her employee, Joe, to let him know that today’s meeting has been moved to one o’clock. In the communication process, Mary is ________.A) the senderB) the receiverC) the decoderD) the channelE) the encoderAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The sender initiates a message by encoding a thought. The message is the actual physical product of the sender’s encoding.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.4) In a communication process, the ________ is the actual physical product of the sender’s encoding.A) channelB) messageC) feedbackD) transmitterE) noiseAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The message is the actual physical product of the sender’s encoding.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.5) With reference to the communication process, when a sender speaks, the speech is the ________.A) channelB) filterC) messageD) noiseE) transmitterAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) When we speak, the speech is the message.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.6) John writes a memo to his employees. Putting his thoughts onto paper is an example of ________.A) encodingB) decodingC) transferringD) channelingE) editingAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The sender initiates a message by encoding a thought. The message is the actual physical product of the sender’s encoding. John uses writing to encode his message.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.7) With reference to the communication process, the ________ is the medium through which the message travels.A) feedbackB) noiseC) encoderD) channelE) decoderAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The channel is the medium through which the message travels.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.8) With reference to the communication process, the ________ is the one to whom the message is directed, who must first translate the symbols into understandable form.A) editorB) receiverC) encoderD) senderE) channelAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The receiver is the person(s) to whom the message is directed, who must first translate the symbols into understandable form.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.9) In a communication process, ________ is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended.A) editingB) decodingC) feedbackD) encodingE) noiseAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Feedback is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended. It determines whether understanding has been achieved.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.10) Which of the following statements is definitely true regarding an informal communication channel?A) It traditionally follows the authority chain within the organization.B) It generally transmits messages related to the professional activities of members.C) It is established by the organization.D) It is generally used for communicating personal or social messages.E) Information regarding change in the policies of the organization is transmitted through it.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Formal channels are established by the organization and transmit messages related to the professional activities of members. They traditionally follow the authority chain within the organization. Other forms of messages, such as personal or social, follow informal channels, which are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.11) Helena and Laura were talking on the phone. Laura’s two-year-old son fell and started crying loudly. Laura could no longer hear what Helena said. This is an example of ________.A) feedbackB) decodingC) noiseD) encodingE) filteringAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Noise represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message, such as perceptual problems, information overload, semantic difficulties, or cultural differences. The crying baby represents noise.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.12) The receiver of a communication must first ________ the message.A) encodeB) reproduceC) transferD) translateE) discardAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The receiver is the person(s) to whom the message is directed, who must first translate the symbols into understandable form. This step is the decoding of the message.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.13) A receiver who translates a sender’s message is engaging in the process of ________.A) encodingB) decodingC) transmissionD) feedbackE) recodingAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The receiver is the person(s) to whom the message is directed, who must first translate the symbols into understandable form. This step is the decoding of the message.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.14) Which is not one of the five major functions which communication covers within a group or organization?A) subordinatesB) feedbackC) emotional sharingD) persuasionE) information exchangeAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Communication covers the functions of management, not subordinates.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.15) Emotional sharing is very prominent in the workplace and a way for many individuals to meet their social needs. Why is this?A) People are emotionally unstable and bring that to work.B) People are lazy and just want to socialize at work.C) Sharing while working improves performance.D) The workplace is the primary source of social interaction for most people.E) People have no lives and work all the time.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) In our society, the workplace is the primary source of social interaction during their day and therefore has become the primary source of emotional sharing in relation to social needs.Diff: 2AACSB:  Interpersonal Relations and teamworkQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.16) The act of persuasion on the part of the leader is unethical.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  While certain persuasive acts on the part of the leader can be unethical, persuasion is important to the leader being able to move their organization forward.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.17) In the communication process, decoding precedes encoding.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  The sender initiates a message by encoding a thought. The message is the actual physical product of the sender’s encoding. The receiver is the person(s) to whom the message is directed, who must first translate the symbols into understandable form. This step is the decoding of the message. Decoding comes after the sender’s encoding.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.18) What are the eight key parts of the communication process?Answer:  The eight key parts of the communication process are (1) the sender, (2) encoding, (3) the message, (4) the channel, (5) decoding, (6) the receiver, (7) noise, and (8) feedback. The sender initiates a message by encoding a thought. The message is the actual physical product of the sender’s encoding. The channel is the medium through which the message travels. The receiver is the person(s) to whom the message is directed, who must first translate the symbols into understandable form. This step is the decoding of the message. Noise represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message. The final link in the communication process is a feedback loop. Feedback is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.19) You have been excelling in your position and gaining a good deal of attention from your managers and coworkers. While your managers are praising your work, your coworkers are making fun of you and calling you a brownnoser. Because you do not like being made fun of, you start to reduce your efforts. What role has communication played in the changes to your behavior?Answer:  While my managers are formally communicating their praise of me (which is part of their role within the organization), my coworkers are informally communicating with me and in this case discouraging me to work my hardest. Their communication efforts are being allowed to informally manage my behaviors.Diff: 3AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  11.1 Describe the functions and process of communication.20) Group leaders and managers communicating with employees to assign goals and to provide job instructions is an example of a(n) ________ communication.A) downwardB) lateralC) upwardD) grapevineE) horizontalAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level is downward communication. It’s used by group leaders and managers communicating with employees to assign goals, provide job instructions, explain policies and procedures, point out problems that need attention, and offer feedback about performance.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.21) The communication used by managers to offer feedback about performance is ________ communication.A) downwardB) lateralC) informalD) directionalE) grapevineAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level is downward communication. It’s used by group leaders and managers communicating with employees to assign goals, provide job instructions, explain policies, and offer feedback about performance.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.22) Which of the following is an example of downward communication flow?A) An employee provides feedback to higher-ups regarding her progress toward goals.B) An employee suggests a way of improving efficiency of a process to his team lead.C) An employee receives mail from her team leader pointing out problems that need attention.D) An employee informs her colleague about changes in the company policy.E) An employee informs his friend from a different department about a new coffee shop that has just opened in the town.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level is downward communication. It’s used by group leaders and managers communicating with employees to assign goals, provide job instructions, explain policies, and offer feedback about performance.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.23) All of the following are examples of downward communication flows except________.A) managers assigning goalsB) managers informing employees of proceduresC) managers pointing out problems that need attentionD) employees completing attitude surveysE) managers telling employees to work more quicklyAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Downward communication is used by group leaders and managers communicating with employees to assign goals, provide job instructions, explain policies and procedures, point out problems that need attention, and offer feedback about performance. Employee surveys are an example of upward communication.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.24) ________ communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization.A) HorizontalB) DownwardC) LateralD) UpwardE) GrapevineAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Upward communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.25) Communication that takes place among members of work groups at the same level is known as ________ communication.A) diagonalB) grapevineC) upwardD) lateralE) downwardAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) When communication takes place among members of the same work group, members of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any other horizontally equivalent workers, it is described as lateral communication.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.26) Which of the following is an example of upward communication?A) A team leader sends an e-mail to one of her team members giving him feedback about his performance.B) A team leader sends an e-mail to his team members pointing out problems that need attention.C) A team member sends an e-mail to his team leader informing her about the problems faced by him on the current project.D) A manager sends an e-mail to all members in the organization informing them about new policies and procedures.E) A team member sends an e-mail to his colleague informing him about the latest changes in the specifications of the project.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Upward communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization. A team member sending an e-mail to his team leader informing her about the problems faced by him on the current project is an example of upward communication.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.27) When engaging in upward communication an employee should not ________.A) meet his manager alone in a conference roomB) communicate in headlinesC) support ideas with actionD) engage in a meandering discussionE) prepare an agendaAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) To engage in effective upward communication, the employee should try to reduce distractions, communicate in headlines not paragraphs, support headlines with actionable items (what he or she believes should happen), and prepare an agenda to make sure that the boss’s attention is used well.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.28) Which of the following is considered the ultimate example of downward communication?A) performance reviewB) conference callC) job interviewD) emailE) interoffice memoAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) During a performance review, it is essential to have interaction between the leader and the subordinate as to facilitate growth, motivation, and relationship building.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.29) Your ________ can be as important as the ________ of your communication.A) attitude; deliveryB) delivery; contentC) content; styleD) style; timelinessE) timeliness; attitudeAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Understanding the correct method of how to deliver your message can be just as important as the message or meaning of the communication. Often, a poor deliver can harm an otherwise good message.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.30) The grapevine within an organization provides which benefit(s)?A) creates a sense of closeness within the organizationB) gives managers a feel for the morale of the organizationC) gives managers a sense of who is well networked in the organizationD) both A and BE) all A, B, and CAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) The small talk of the grapevine can be an important source of knowledge and understanding for the managers to use in the organizations development. The grapevine can also be an important source of bonding within the organization; however, it also has the potential to create outgroups.Diff: 2AACSB:  Interpersonal Relations and teamworkQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.31) Which of the following types of communication is most likely to be used by employees to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress toward goals, and relay current problems?A) lateral communicationB) upward communicationC) downward communicationD) horizontal communicationE) grapevine communicationAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Upward communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization. It is used to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress toward goals, and relay current problems.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.32) Peter is working on a project. He feels that the parameters need to be changed to meet client specifications. First he must talk to his immediate supervisor, who then discusses the issue with her department director. Peter is most likely part of which of the following types of small-group communication network?A) star networkB) mesh networkC) chain networkD) all-channel networkE) ring networkAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The decision making described in the example follows the formal chain of command; this network approximates the communication channels you might find in a rigid three-level organization. Peter is most likely part of a chain group.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.33) Which of the following types of small-group communication networks is most effective for facilitating the emergence of a leader?A) chain networkB) all-channel networkC) wheel networkD) mesh networkE) bus networkAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The wheel relies on a central figure to act as the conduit for all the group’s communication; it facilitates the emergence of a leader.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.34) If a checkout clerk reports to a department manager, who in turn reports to a store manager, who reports to a regional manager, the communication network is said to be a(n) ________ network.A) meshB) all-channelC) starD) chain E) wheelAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The decision making described in the example follows the formal chain of command; this network approximates the communication channels you might find in a rigid three-level organization. Peter is most likely part of a chain group.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.35) Which of the following types of small-group communication networks should be used if high member satisfaction is desired?A) star networkB) wheel networkC) mesh networkD) all-channel networkE) chain networkAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The all-channel network permits all group members to actively communicate with each other; it’s most often characterized in practice by self-managed teams, in which all group members are free to contribute and no one person takes on a leadership role. The all-channel network is best if you desire high member satisfaction.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.36) When all communication is channeled through one central figure, a(n) ________ communication network exists.A) all-channelB) chain C) meshD) wheelE) ringAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The wheel relies on a central figure to act as the conduit for all the group’s communication; it simulates the communication network you would find on a team with a strong leader.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.37) Harriet has been assigned the task of setting up work teams for a complex software development project. Each team has different work requirements. Harriet must choose the best structure for each team, based on its specific requirements. Team A must operate very quickly to meet stringent deadlines. The quality of the final project depends highly on Team A’s output, so Team A must also work very accurately. Which of the following network structures should Harriet choose for this team?A) chainB) wheelC) meshD) starE) all-channelAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The wheel rates highest of effectiveness in speed, emergence of leaders, and accuracy. However, it rates low on membership satisfaction. It is the best choice for Harriet as she needs accuracy and speed to meet her deadline.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.38) After establishing Team D in a wheel network structure, Harriet receives negative feedback from members of the team. Many team members express frustration about working in the group, and most dislike the interpersonal style of the team leader. Which of the following strategies would most likely help to improve the team members’ morale?A) leaving the team as a wheel network and encouraging team members to share the leadership responsibilityB) restructuring the group as a chain network and replacing the leader with another group memberC) leaving the team leader in place and restructuring the group as a chain networkD) transferring the team leader to another group and restructuring the group as an all-channel networkE) leaving the team as a wheel network and replacing the team leader with another group memberAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The all-channel network permits all group members to actively communicate with each other. It rates highest for member satisfaction. If Harriet is worried about member satisfaction, she should change the group to all-channel, in which all group members are free to contribute and no one person takes on a leadership role.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.39) In a(n) ________ communication network, any group member can actively communicate with any other member.A) wheelB) all-channelC) meshD) chainE) starAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The all-channel network permits all group members to actively communicate with each other; it’s most often characterized in practice by self-managed teams, in which all group members are free to contribute and no one person takes on a leadership role. It rates the highest in effectiveness of member satisfaction.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.40) The ________ communication network is best illustrated by self-managed teams.A) wheelB) all-channelC) meshD) chainE) ringAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The all-channel network permits all group members to actively communicate with each other; it’s most often characterized in practice by self-managed teams, in which all group members are free to contribute and no one person takes on a leadership role. It rates the highest in effectiveness of member satisfaction.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.41) An informal communication network in an organization is typically called the ________.A) wheel networkB) grapevineC) chain networkD) contextual systemE) free acting systemAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The informal communication network in a group or organization is called the grapevine. Although the grapevine may be informal, it’s still an important source of information. A survey found it’s where 75 percent of employees hear about matters first.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.42) Ideally, a chain network should be used when ________.A) high speed of information transfer is desiredB) accuracy of information is most importantC) the network is expected to facilitate emergence of a leaderD) high member satisfaction is desiredE) the teams using the chain network are self-managed teamsAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Ideally, a chain network should be used when accuracy of information is most important.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.43) Which of the following statements is true regarding the grapevine?A) It is a formal channel of communication in an organization.B) About 10 percent of information that flows along the grapevine is accurate.C) It is controlled by management.D) Most employees perceive it as more believable and reliable than formal communiqués issued by top management.E) The grapevine is a popular form of written communication.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) The informal communication network in a group or organization is called the grapevine. It is not controlled by management. Most employees perceive it as more believable and reliable than formal communiqués issued by top management. About 75 percent of information that flows along the grapevine is accurate. The grapevine is a popular form of oral communication.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.44) Which one of the following is an informal source of information for job applicants joining an organization?A) electronic communicationB) nonverbal communicationC) horizontal communicationD) vertical communicationE) grapevine communicationAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) The informal communication network in a group or organization is called the grapevine. Although the rumor and gossip transmitted through the grapevine may be informal, it’s still an important source of information. A recent report shows that grapevine or word-of-mouth information from peers about a company has important effects on whether job applicants join an organization.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.45) Harriet has been charged with the task of evaluating two employees for possible promotions. She is interested in learning which employee has the most effective leadership skills. One of the employees is assigned to Team B, and the other is assigned to Team C. Which network structure should Harriet choose for these teams if she wishes to place the two employees in clear leadership positions on the teams?A) wheelB) chainC) concentricD) all-channelE) meshAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The wheel relies on a central figure to act as the conduit for all the group’s communication; it simulates the communication network you would find on a team with a strong leader.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.46) For a manager, it is worth understanding the grapevine in the organization because ________.A) it is the least costly way of transmitting informationB) it improves employee motivationC) it helps tap into employee anxietiesD) it increases job satisfaction for the employeesE) it improves team efficiencyAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Grapevine is an important part of any group or organization communication network and is well worth understanding. It gives managers a feel for the morale of their organization, identifies issues employees consider important, and helps tap into employee anxieties.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.47) Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level is lateral communication.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level is downward communication.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.48) The grapevine is perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communiqués issued by management.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  The informal communication network in a group or organization is called the grapevine. A survey found it’s where 75 percent of employees hear about matters first. Most employees perceive it as more believable and reliable than formal communiqués issued by top management.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.49) Lateral communications are often created to short-circuit the vertical hierarchy within an organization.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  When communication takes place among members of the same work group, members of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any other horizontally equivalent workers, we describe it as lateral communication. Lateral communication is informally created to short-circuit the vertical hierarchy and expedite action. Lateral communication saves time and facilitates coordination.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.50) Explain and provide a workplace example for each of the following communication situations: oral communication in downward flowing direction; written communication in upward flowing direction; and non-verbal communication in lateral flowing direction.Answer:  Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level is downward communication. When a sales manager holds a sales meeting to explain new products or to motivate the team he is using downward flowing oral communication. Upward communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization. It’s used to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress toward goals, and relay current problems. A monthly status report from a project manager sent to his department director is an example of upward flowing written communication. When communication takes place among members of the same work group, members of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level or any other horizontally equivalent workers, we describe it as lateral communication. Nonverbal communication includes body movements, the intonations or emphasis we give to words, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and receiver. When two programmers confer on the best way to crack a code for a common project, they are engaging in oral lateral communication. If one of them shows a puzzled face, or raises an eyebrow at the other’s suggestion that is an example of non-verbal lateral communication. Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.51) What is lateral communication?Answer:  When communication takes place among members of the same work group, members of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any other horizontally equivalent workers, we describe it as lateral communication. Lateral communication saves time and facilitates coordination. Some lateral relationships are formally sanctioned. More often, they are informally created to short-circuit the vertical hierarchy and expedite action. So from management’s viewpoint, lateral communications can be good or bad. Because strictly adhering to the formal vertical structure for all communications can be inefficient, lateral communication occurring with management’s knowledge and support can be beneficial. But it can create dysfunctional conflicts when the formal vertical channels are breached, when members go above or around their superiors to get things done, or when bosses find actions have been taken or decisions made without their knowledge. When communication takes place among members of the same work group, members of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any other horizontally equivalent workers, we describe it as lateral communication. Lateral communication saves time and facilitates coordination. Some lateral relationships are formally sanctioned. More often, they are informally created to short-circuit the vertical hierarchy and expedite action. So from management’s viewpoint, lateral communications can be good or bad. Because strictly adhering to the formal vertical structure for all communications can be inefficient, lateral communication occurring with management’s knowledge and support can be beneficial. But it can create dysfunctional conflicts when the formal vertical channels are breached, when members go above or around their superiors to get things done, or when bosses find actions have been taken or decisions made without their knowledge. Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.52) Discuss the three common small group networks. Evaluate each on their effectiveness. Is there any one best network?Answer:  a) The chain rigidly follows the formal chain of command. This network approximates the communication channels you might find in a rigid three-level organization. The chain is best if accuracy is most important.b) The wheel relies on a central figure to act as the conduit for all of the group’s communication. It stimulates the communication network you would find on a team with a strong leader. The structure of the wheel facilitates the emergence of a leader.c) The all-channel network is most often characterized in practice by self-managed teams, in which all group members are free to contribute and no one person takes on a leadership role. The all-channel network is best if you are concerned with having high member satisfaction. No single network is best for all occasions.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.53) Explain how the grapevine functions and why it exists in organizational communication.Answer:  The grapevine is an important part of any group or organization communication network. It serves employees’ needs: small talk creates a sense of closeness and friendship among those who share information, although research suggests it often does so at the expense of those in the out-group. It also gives managers a feel for the morale of their organization, issues employees consider important, and employee anxieties. Evidence indicates that managers can study the gossip driven largely by employee social networks to learn more about how positive and negative information is flowing through the organization. Managers can furthermore identify influencers (highly networked people trusted by their coworkers) by noting which individuals are small talkers (those who regularly communicate about insignificant, unrelated issues) Small talkers tend to be influencers. One study found that social talkers are so influential that they were significantly more likely to retain their jobs during layoffs. Thus, while the grapevine may not be sanctioned or controlled by the organization, it can be understood and leveraged a bit.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.54) What are the various ways in which a manager can effectively handle rumors?Answer:  The informal communication network in a group or organization is called the grapevine. Although the grapevine may be informal, it’s still an important source of information. Managers cannot eliminate rumors. What they should do, however, is minimize the negative consequences of rumors by limiting their range and impact. Some of the ways in which managers can effectively handle rumors are:1. Provide information—in the long run, the best defense against rumors is a good offense (in other words, rumors tend to thrive in the absence of formal communication).2. Explain actions and decisions that may appear inconsistent, unfair, or secretive.3. Refrain from shooting the messenger—rumors are a natural fact of organizational life, so respond to them calmly, rationally, and respectfully.4. Maintain open communication channels—constantly encourage employees to come to you with concerns, suggestions, and ideas. Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.55) Please define the concept of lateral communication.Answer:  When communication takes place among members of the same work group, members of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any other horizontally equivalent workers, we describe it as lateral communication. Lateral communication saves time and facilitates coordination. Some lateral relationships are formally sanctioned. More often, they are informally created to short-circuit the vertical hierarchy and expedite action. So from management’s viewpoint, lateral communications can be good or bad. Because strictly adhering to the formal vertical structure for all communications can be inefficient, lateral communication occurring with management’s knowledge and support can be beneficial. But it can create dysfunctional conflicts when the formal vertical channels are breached, when members go above or around their superiors to get things done, or when bosses find actions have been taken or decisions made without their knowledge.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.2 Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication through small-group networks and the grapevine.56) Which of the following statements is true regarding oral communication?A) It is often tangible and verifiable.B) It can be stored for an indefinite period.C) The sender can quickly obtain feedback from the receiver.D) As compared to written communication, it is more likely to be well thought out, logical, and clear.E) In the case of oral communication, when the message has to pass through a number of people, as the number of people increases the possibility of distortion of the message decreases.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) The advantages of oral communication are speed and feedback. We can convey a verbal message and receive a response in minimal time. If the receiver is unsure of the message, rapid feedback allows the sender to quickly detect and correct it. The major disadvantage of oral communication surfaces whenever a message has to pass through a number of people: the more people, the greater the potential distortion.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.57) Communication messages that are passed through a great many people will most likely suffer from which of the following?A) selective perceptionB) distortionC) lack of nonverbal cuesD) information overloadE) formal communication integrationAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The major disadvantage of oral communication surfaces whenever a message has to pass through a number of people: the more people, the greater the potential distortion.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.58) Which of the following forms of communication most likely deals with body movements, the intonations or emphasis we give to words, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and receiver?A) written communicationB) downward communicationC) nonverbal communicationD) lateral communicationE) upward communicationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Nonverbal communication deals with body movements, the intonations or emphasis we give to words, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and receiver. Downward, upward, and lateral communication may or may not be nonverbal.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.59) All of the following are examples of nonverbal communication except________.A) intonations or emphasisB) instant messagingC) physical distance between the sender and the receiverD) facial expressionsE) hand gesturesAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) It is important in communication to consider nonverbal communication, which includes body movements, the intonations or emphasis we give to words, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and receiver. Such clues cannot be observed in instant messaging. Instant messaging is not an example of nonverbal communication.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.60) Genepa Corporation manufactures home appliances and other electronic products. Genepa is planning to introduce a new refrigerator model. The marketing manager at Genepa has developed a marketing plan for this new product and wants to communicate this plan to all the employees in the marketing department. Which of the following is most likely to be the best form of communication for communicating this plan?A) nonverbal communicationB) oral communicationC) written communicationD) grapevine communicationE) lateral communicationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Written communication is often tangible and verifiable. When it’s printed, both the sender and receiver have a record of the communication; and the message can be stored for an indefinite period. The marketing plan is likely to contain a number of tasks spread out over several months. By putting it in writing, those who have to initiate the plan can readily refer to it over its lifespan.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.61) When ________ communication is used for transferring a message, the message becomes tangible and verifiable and it can be stored for an indefinite period.A) oralB) grapevineC) writtenD) nonverbalE) lateralAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Written communication is often tangible and verifiable. When it’s printed, both the sender and receiver have a record of the communication; and the message can be stored for an indefinite period.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.62) Generally, which of the following methods of communication should be used for communicating a complex and lengthy message when the message has to pass through a number of people?A) grapevine communicationB) written communicationC) oral communicationD) nonverbal communicationE) filtered communicationAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Written communication is often tangible and verifiable. When it’s printed, both the sender and receiver have a record of the communication; and the message can be stored for an indefinite period. If there are questions about its content, the message is physically available for later reference. This feature is particularly important for complex and lengthy communications.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.63) Which of the following is not a physical manifestation of being a good listener?A) making eye contactB) learning in toward the speakerC) touching the speakerD) encouraging the speaker to continueE) paraphrasing the content back to the speakerAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) There is no indication that touching is a result of good listening.Diff: 1AACSB:  Interpersonal Relations and teamworkQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.64) Communication chains are generally more of a liability than an effective tool in organization.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Though popular as a way to get information across the organization, message chains have the strong potential for the message to be altered.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.65) The advantages of written communication are speed and feedback.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  The advantages of oral communication are speed and feedback. Written communication is more time consuming than oral communication.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communication; Information TechnologyQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.66) The advantages of oral communication are precision and tangibility.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  The advantages of oral communication are speed and feedback. Written messages are often tangible and verifiable and they can be stored for an indefinite period.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.67) In the case of oral communication, when the message has to pass through a number of people, as the number of people increases the possibility of distortion of the message decreases.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  The major disadvantage of oral communication surfaces whenever a message has to pass through a number of people: the more people, the greater the potential distortion.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.68) Ideally, oral communication should be used for conveying a complex and lengthy message to a large number of people.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Written communication is particularly suitable for conveying a complex and lengthy message to a large number of people. A written message can be stored for an indefinite period. If there are questions about its content, the message is physically available for later reference. This feature is particularly important for complex and lengthy communications.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.69) Generally, a body position or movement by itself has a precise and universal meaning.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  A body position or movement does not by itself have a precise or universal meaning, but when it is linked with spoken language, it gives fuller meaning to a sender’s message.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.70) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of oral communication.Answer:  The chief means of conveying messages is oral communication. The advantages of oral communication are speed and feedback. We can convey a verbal message and receive a response in minimal time. If the receiver is unsure of the message, rapid feedback allows the sender to quickly detect and correct it. The major disadvantage of oral communication surfaces whenever a message has to pass through a number of people: the more people, the greater the potential distortion. In an organization, where decisions and other communiqués are verbally passed up and down the authority hierarchy, considerable opportunities arise for messages to become distorted.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.71) Describe the various forms of nonverbal communication.Answer:  Nonverbal communication includes body movements, the intonations or emphasis we give to words, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and receiver.The two most important messages body language conveys are (1) the extent to which we like another and are interested in his or her views and (2) the perceived status between a sender and receiver. A body position or movement does not by itself have a precise or universal meaning, but when it is linked with spoken language, it gives fuller meaning to a sender’s message. Intonations can change the meaning of a message. Facial expressions also convey meaning. Physical distance also has meaning. What is considered proper spacing between people largely depends on cultural norms.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.3 Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.72) Which of the following is not a drawback of written messages?A) They’re time consuming.B) They are unlikely to be well thought-out.C) They lack built-in feedback mechanisms.D) It is difficult for senders to confirm whether they have been received.E) They may be misinterpreted by their receivers.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) A benefit of all written communication comes from the process itself. People are usually forced to think more thoroughly about what they want to convey in a written message than in a spoken one. Thus, written communications are more likely to be well thought out, logical, and clear.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.4 Describe how channel richness underlies the choice of communication channel.73) One of the major disadvantages of oral communication is that ________.A) people unintentionally change the message and meaningB) people intentionally change the message and meaningC) people can ask for immediate feedbackD) both A and BE) both A and CAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) As communication passes from individual to individual, the meaning of the message can be both intentionally and unintentionally changed.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.4 Describe how channel richness underlies the choice of communication channel.74) All of the following are high in channel richness except ________.A) wordsB) posturesC) writingD) gesturesE) smilesAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Channel richness refers to the ability to communicate on multiple cues, rapid feedback, and being personal. Writings, such as letters and reports, are low in these areas.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.4 Describe how channel richness underlies the choice of communication channel.75) Which is the best manner in which to introduce information-security to an organization’s employees?A) memoB) letterC) meetingD) discussion forumE) training videoAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Information-security measures, such as email monitoring or video surveillance, can seem very invasive. A meeting provides for a channel rich environment for employees to ask questions and even participate in the policy creations.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  11.4 Describe how channel richness underlies the choice of communication channel.76) People are usually forced to think more thoroughly about what they want to convey in a spoken message than in a written one.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  People are usually forced to think more thoroughly about what they want to convey in a written message than in a spoken one.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.4 Describe how channel richness underlies the choice of communication channel.77) A major disadvantage of written communication is that it is more time consuming than oral communication.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Written communication is more time consuming than oral communication.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.4 Describe how channel richness underlies the choice of communication channel.78) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of written communication.Answer:  Written communications include memos, letters, fax transmissions, e-mail, instant messaging, organizational periodicals, notices placed on bulletin boards (including electronic ones), and any other device that transmits via written words or symbols. It’s often tangible and verifiable. When it’s printed, both the sender and receiver have a record of the communication; and the message can be stored for an indefinite period. If there are questions about its content, the message is physically available for later reference. This feature is particularly important for complex and lengthy communications. A final benefit of all written communication comes from the process itself. People are usually forced to think more thoroughly about what they want to convey in a written message than in a spoken one.A drawback of written communication is that it is time consuming. The other major disadvantage is lack of a built-in feedback mechanism. Oral communication allows the receiver to respond rapidly to what he thinks he hears. But mailing a memo provides no assurance it has been received or that the recipient will interpret it as the sender intended.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.4 Describe how channel richness underlies the choice of communication channel.79) Which of the following is not one of the controlled processing one might use when processing information?A) message characteristicsB) prior knowledgeC) tailoring the messageD) interest levelE) personalityAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Tailoring the message is what a sender does to try to match the message to one of the four controlled processes.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.5 Differentiate between automatic and controlled processing of persuasive messages.80) Miranda is a mid-level supervisor at a home improvement store. Over the last few weeks, Miranda has noticed that Lauren has not been doing well at his job and the sales in his area have been slipping. Which method of communication would be best for Miranda to use to address this matter with Lauren?A) emailB) memoC) phone callD) informal MeetingE) formal MeetingAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) At this point, Miranda does not know what might be causing Lauren difficulties at work. An informal meeting facilitates the highest levels of channel richness as it will allow both Miranda and Lauren to have an open discussion without formality.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.5 Differentiate between automatic and controlled processing of persuasive messages.81) You have recently been promoted to district manager of a large scale restaurant chain which specializes in affordable meals in a pleasant environment. In accordance with management objectives, you are responsible for increasing sales of appetizers by 20 percent by the next quarter for the 15 locations in your area. Keeping channel richness in mind, how will you make contact with the restaurant employees to facilitate the sales increase?Answer:  Responses will vary and most any response will be correct; however, responses which include discussion regarding face-to-face interactions between the author and the restaurant managers should be viewed as the strongest as those are using channel richness most effectively.Diff: 3AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  11.5 Differentiate between automatic and controlled processing of persuasive messages.82) Filtering is a barrier to effective communication. Filtering takes place when ________.A) the interpretation of the message gets affected by the receiver’s emotionB) the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacityC) a sender purposely manipulates information so the receiver will see it more favorablyD) the receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their motivations, experience, and other personal characteristicsE) receivers also project their interests and expectations into communications as they decode themAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Filtering refers to how a sender purposely manipulates information so the receiver will see it more favorably.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.83) Jake tells his boss only what he believes the boss wants to hear. Jake is engaging in ________.A) filtering informationB) selective perception of informationC) communication apprehensionD) emotional blockageE) emotional contagionAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Filtering refers to a sender’s purposely manipulating information so the receiver will see it more favorably. A manager who tells his boss what he feels the boss wants to hear is filtering information.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.84) Receivers in communication see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics. This is called ________.A) communication apprehensionB) filteringC) selective perceptionD) emotional blockE) information overloadAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics. This is called selective perception. Receivers also project their interests and expectations into communications as they decode them.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.85) An employment interviewer who expects a female job applicant to put her family ahead of her career is likely to see that in all female applicants, regardless of whether they actually feel that way. This is an example of ________.A) information overloadB) selective perceptionC) emotional laborD) filteringE) communication apprehensionAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics. This is called selective perception. Receivers also project their interests and expectations into communications as they decode them.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.86) Which of the following is not a barrier to effective communication?A) filteringB) silenceC) selective perceptionD) information overloadE) the grapevineAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Filtering, silence, selective perception, and information overload are all barriers to effective communication. The grapevine is a popular form of oral communication.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.87) Information overload occurs when ________.A) the interpretation of the message gets affected by the receiver’s cultural backgroundB) the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacityC) a sender purposely manipulates information so the receiver will see it more favorablyD) the information transmitted to the receiver is distorted by the communication channelE) the information sent by the sender does not reach the receiverAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Individuals have a finite capacity for processing data. When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity, the result is information overload.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.88) Even when we’re communicating in the same language, words mean different things to different people, with ________ and context being two of the biggest factors that influence such differences.A) educational qualificationB) genderC) ageD) religionE) social classAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Even when we’re communicating in the same language, words mean different things to different people, and age and context are two of the biggest factors that influence such differences.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.89) The phrase “get the low hanging fruit” means ________.A) deal with the assumptions in communicationB) eliminate communication difficultiesC) deal with the easiest parts firstD) find followers who will support youE) eliminate inconsistencies in communication styleAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The phrase “get the low hanging fruit” means deal with the easiest parts first.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.90) If Albert is apprehensive regarding oral communication, which of the following behaviors is he least likely to display?A) He prefers to talk on the phone.B) He distorts the communication demands of his job.C) He limits his oral communication and then tends to rationalize his behavior.D) He relies on memos or letters.E) He avoids face-to-face communication.Answer:  AExplanation:  A) People suffering communication apprehension experience undue tension and anxiety in oral communication. They may find it extremely difficult to talk with others face to face or may become extremely anxious when they have to use the telephone, relying instead on memos or faxes when a phone call would be faster and more appropriate.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.91) Zeus Industries sells satellite television systems. Recently, the company invested heavily in one of the many new technologies available. Employees tell senior management that this investment was the right choice, but sales keep decreasing. Some sales employees have also given incorrect information to suppliers, even though the company has held numerous intensive training sessions to keep sales personnel apprised of changes in the industry. The company has also received low customer service ratings from recent consumer surveys. These surveys indicate that customers are frustrated with the specialized technical knowledge necessary to operate their satellite systems. Which of the following best characterizes the communication problems occurring between employees and senior management?A) filteringB) sabotageC) communication apprehensionD) information overloadE) selective perceptionAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Filtering refers to a sender’s purposely manipulating information so the receiver will see it more favorably. A manager who tells his boss what he feels the boss wants to hear is filtering information. In this example, the company is filtering the information that reaches management.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.92) The mistakes committed by the sales staff suggest that sales personnel are probably experiencing which of the following as a result of their intensive training?A) filtering B) emotional laborC) information overload D) communication apprehension E) selective perception Answer:  CExplanation:  C) When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity, the result is information overload. In this example the sales team is choosing to select, ignore, pass over, or forget information which is most likely to be the result of information overload.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communication; Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.93) Zeus Industries sells satellite television systems. Recently, the company invested heavily in one of the many new technologies available. Employees tell senior management that this investment was the right choice, but sales keep decreasing. Some sales employees have also given incorrect information to suppliers, even though the company has held numerous intensive training sessions to keep sales personnel apprised of changes in the industry. The company has also received low customer service ratings from recent consumer surveys. These surveys indicate that customers are frustrated with the specialized technical knowledge necessary to operate their satellite systems. The mistakes committed by the sales staff suggest that sales personnel are probably experiencing which of the following as a result of their intensive training?A) filteringB) emotional laborC) information overloadD) communication apprehensionE) selective perceptionAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity, the result is information overload. In this example the sales team is choosing to select, ignore, pass over, or forget information which is most likely to be the result of information overload.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.94) Selective perception refers to how a sender purposely manipulates information so the receiver will see it more favorably.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Filtering refers to how a sender purposely manipulates information so the receiver will see it more favorably. Selective perception occurs when receivers in the communication process selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.95) Filtering is most likely to occur in organizations in which there are many vertical levels.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Filtering refers to a sender’s purposely manipulating information so the receiver will see it more favorably. A manager who tells his boss what he feels the boss wants to hear is filtering information. The more vertical levels in the organization’s hierarchy, the more opportunities there are for filtering. But some filtering will occur wherever there are status differences.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.96) List and explain four of the barriers to effective communication.Answer:  Some of the barriers to effective communication are:a) Filtering refers to a sender’s purposely manipulating information so it will be seen more favorably by the receiver.b) Selective perception occurs when receivers process communication selectively to see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics.c) When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity, the result is information overload.d) How the receiver feels at the time of receipt of a communication message will influence how he or she interprets it.e) Words mean different things to different people. Age, education, and cultural background are three of the most obvious variables that influence the language a person uses and the definitions he or she gives to words.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.6 Identify common barriers to effective communication.97) In ________, people rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communicating with others, and a person’s official status, place in society, and reputation carry considerable weight.A) individualistic culturesB) low power distance culturesC) cultures that score low on uncertainty avoidanceD) high-context culturesE) cultures that have long time orientationAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) In high-context cultures, people rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communicating with others, and a person’s official status, place in society, and reputation carry considerable weight.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.7 Discuss how to overcome potential problems of cross-cultural communication.98) Which of the following is not something a manager should do to communicate better across cultures?A) assume similarity until difference is provenB) emphasize description rather than interpretationC) practice empathyD) interpret the situation from the differing perspectives of all concernedE) treat interpretations as a working hypothesisAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) When communicating with people from a different culture you should assume differences until similarity is proven, evaluating what someone has said from the differing perspectives of all concerned, practice empathy, treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.7 Discuss how to overcome potential problems of cross-cultural communication.99) James and Neung are negotiating a purchase from Neung’s Tai corporation. James notices that Neung is very quiet. Rather than assume that Neung is upset at how the negotiations are going, James continues to discuss the details of how the purchase will ensue. Finally James closes the deal and later learns that Neung’s quiet moments were respectful moments to allow James to reveal his deal. Which strategy did James use to succeed?A) assume certain universal similaritiesB) emphasize description rather than interpretationC) practice empathyD) assume differences until similarity is provenE) treat interpretations as a working hypothesisAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) James continued to emphasize the description of the deal, rather than interpret Neung’s behavior. Interpreting or evaluating what someone has said or done draws more on your own culture and background than on the observed situation. So delay judgment until you’ve had sufficient time to observe and interpret the situation from the differing perspectives of all concerned.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.7 Discuss how to overcome potential problems of cross-cultural communication.100) Which of the following values is most likely to be important to low-context cultures?A) statusB) directnessC) titlesD) trustE) spaceAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) People from Europe and North America reflect their low-context cultures. They rely essentially on spoken and written words to convey meaning and value directness.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.7 Discuss how to overcome potential problems of cross-cultural communication.101) A manager should practice ________, which means in dealing with cross-cultural communication, a manager should put herself in the place of the employee to understand the employees values, experiences and frames of reference.A) evaluationB) empathyC) complicityD) commiserationE) apathyAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) A manager should practice empathy, which means seeing things from another’s perspective and being sympathetic to that perspective. Examine other’s values, experiences, and frames of reference. Determine what can provide added insight. Try to see the other person as he or she really is.Diff: 2AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.7 Discuss how to overcome potential problems of cross-cultural communication.102) Brenda is a new employee orientation trainer for a global corporation with subsidiaries all over the world. She needs to convey information to new employees that will help them in communicating across cultures. Brenda explains to new employees that ________ cultures rely heavily on nonverbal cues and subtle situational cues in communicating with others, and a person’s official status, place in society, and reputation carry considerable weight.A) low power distanceB) high power distanceC) uncertainty avoidingD) low-contextE) high-contextAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) In high-context cultures such as China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, people rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communicating with others, and a person’s official status, place in society, and reputation carry considerable weight. What is not said may be more significant than what is said.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.7 Discuss how to overcome potential problems of cross-cultural communication.103) Brenda is a new employee orientation trainer for a global corporation with subsidiaries all over the world. She needs to convey information to new employees that will help them in communicating across cultures. Brenda should advise new employees to do which of the following when dealing with others from different cultures?A) remember that individuals are similar in many waysB) avoid interpreting another’s actions until you know the full storyC) act decisively and quickly to demonstrate your powerD) minimize opportunities for feedbackE) do your best to avoid conflictAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Interpreting or evaluating what someone has said or done draws more on your own culture and background than on the observed situation. So delay judgment until you’ve had sufficient time to observe and interpret the situation from the differing perspectives of all concerned.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  11.7 Discuss how to overcome potential problems of cross-cultural communication.104) High-context cultures rely essentially on spoken and written words to convey meaning; body language and formal titles are secondary.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  In high-context cultures people rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communicating with others. What is not said may be more significant than what is said.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.7 Discuss how to overcome potential problems of cross-cultural communication.105) Individuals from individualistic cultures tend to acknowledge conflict only implicitly and avoid emotionally charged disputes.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Collectivists are more likely to acknowledge conflict only implicitly and avoid emotionally charged disputes.Diff: 1AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.7 Discuss how to overcome potential problems of cross-cultural communication.106) Describe and discuss specific problems related to cross-cultural communication. Include cultural barriers and cultural context.Answer:  There are four specific problems related to language difficulties in cross-cultural communications. They include: barriers caused by semantics; barriers caused by word connotations; barriers caused by tone differences; and barriers caused by differences among perceptions.Cultures tend to differ in the importance to which context influences the meaning that individuals take from what is actually said or written versus who the other person is. High-context cultures rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues when communicating with others. What is not said may be more significant than what is said. A person’s official status, place in society, and reputation carry considerable weight in communications. People in low-context cultures rely essentially on words to convey meaning. Body language or formal titles are secondary to spoken and written words.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.7 Discuss how to overcome potential problems of cross-cultural communication.107) Discuss four ways to reduce misinterpretations when communicating with people from a different culture.Answer:  The following four rules can be helpful when communicating with people from different cultures.a) Assume differences until similarity is proven. You are less likely to make an error if you assume others are different from you rather than assuming similarity until differences are proven.b) Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation. Delay judgment until you’ve had sufficient time to observe and interpret the situations from the differing perspectives of all the cultures involved.c) Practice empathy. Before sending a message, put yourself in the recipient’s shoes.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.7 Discuss how to overcome potential problems of cross-cultural communication.108) Distinguish between high-context and low-context cultures.Answer:  Cultures tend to differ in the degree to which context influences the meaning individuals take from communication.In high-context cultures such as China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, people rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communicating with others, and a person’s official status, place in society, and reputation carry considerable weight. What is not said may be more significant than what is said. In contrast, people from Europe and North America reflect their low-context cultures. They rely essentially on spoken and written words to convey meaning; body language and formal titles are secondary.Diff: 3AACSB:  Written and oral communicationQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  11.7 Discuss how to overcome potential problems of cross-cultural communication.