Menu

Chapter10

0 Comment

Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14e (Robbins/Judge)Chapter 10
Understanding Work Teams1) Research has shown that having a positive experience working within a team can also influence one’s ________.A) attitudes toward diversityB) abilitiesC) job satisfactionD) views on managementE) personal decision makingAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) While having a positive experience may allow specific individuals to experience any of the choices, research has shown that working within a team introduces a collaborative mindset into one’s personal decision making processes.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  10.1 Analyze the continued popularity of teams in organizations.2) One of the dangers of teams is that ________.A) someone might be a slackerB) the same people end up doing all the workC) team members can be swayed by fadsD) they are not truly effectiveE) there are no dangers of teamsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Humans can always be swayed by fads and herd mentality that can lead them away from the best decisions.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.1 Analyze the continued popularity of teams in organizations.3) Compared to traditional departments, teams tend to be less flexible and less responsive to changing events.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events than traditional departments or other forms of permanent groupings.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.1 Analyze the continued popularity of teams in organizations.4) Teams are an effective means for management to democratize organizations and increase employee motivation.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Teams facilitate employee participation in operating decisions. Teams are an effective means for management to democratize organizations and increase employee motivation.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.1 Analyze the continued popularity of teams in organizations.5) Which of the following statements best defines a work group?A) A work group’s performance is generally greater than the sum of its inputs from individual members.B) A work group interacts primarily to share information, rather than to engage in work that requires joint effort.C) A work group consists of 5 or more people who work collaboratively.D) A work group has a positive synergy and no active group dynamics, resulting in greater outputs.E) A work group is a group comprised of 10 or more people who belong to the same department.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) A group consists of two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. A work group is defined as a group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. They have no need or opportunity to engage in collective work that requires joint effort. Their performance is merely the summation of each group member’s individual contribution. There is no positive synergy that would create an overall level of performance greater than the sum of the inputs. With both work groups and work teams, there are often behavioral expectations of members, collective normalization efforts, active group dynamics, and some level of decision-making (even if just informally about the scope of membership).Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.2 Contrast groups and teams.6) Which of the following statements is true regarding a work team?A) Today, work teams are rarely used in organizations.B) Work teams are less flexible than traditional departments.C) Work teams generate positive synergy through coordinated effort.D) Work teams are less responsive to changing events than are traditional departments.E) Work teams impede employee participation in decision making.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Today most of the organizations use teams. Teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events than traditional departments or other forms of permanent groupings. A work team generates positive synergy through coordinated effort. Teams facilitate employee participation in operating decisions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.2 Contrast groups and teams.7) ________ results in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.A) SynergyB) Positive affectC) Emotional laborD) Cognitive dissonanceE) Emotional dissonanceAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) A work team generates positive synergy through coordinated effort. The individual efforts result in a level of performance greater than the sum of those individual inputs.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.2 Contrast groups and teams.8) Which of the following is true of teams?A) A team consists of two or more people who work independently, with distinct goals and strategies.B) A team works over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task-oriented purpose.C) Groups are formed with a specific purpose in mind, while teams do not have a specific goal.D) The members of a team operate relatively independently of each other, and other members are not essential to their accomplishment of goals.E) Interactions among members within teams are more personal and informal than interactions between people in groups.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) A team consists of two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task-oriented purpose.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  10.2 Contrast groups and teams.9) Teams differ from groups because ________.A) teams have no limits on the number of members, while groups have a restricted membershipB) members of teams work independently of each other, while those in groups show greater dependence on each otherC) members of teams work toward individual goals that may or may not be related, while groups have a common goalD) members of teams have a specific task-related purpose, while groups do notE) teams have a no fixed duration, while groups have a fixed durationAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) A team consists of two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task-oriented purpose. Interactions among members within teams revolve around a deeper dependence on one another than the interactions within groups and occur with a specific task-related purpose in mind.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  10.2 Contrast groups and teams.10) Which of the following statements is true regarding a work group?A) Individuals working in a work group work on different objectives and are not dependent on each other.B) Work groups primarily engage in collective work that requires joint effort.C) Work groups do not generate any positive synergy through coordinated effort.D) Information sharing is not the primary function of a work group.E) The performance level of the work group is greater than the summation of each group member’s individual contribution.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) A work group consists of two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. The primary function of a work group is sharing information. Work groups have no need or opportunity to engage in collective work that requires joint effort; thus, their performance is merely the summation of each group member’s individual contribution. There is no positive synergy that would create an overall level of performance greater than the sum of the inputs.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.2 Contrast groups and teams.11) Laski United is a rock group that has been around for 5 years and has just had their first #1 hit. This band would be best described as a ________.A) work groupB) work teamC) problem-solving teamD) cross-functional teamE) self-managed teamAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Work teams generate positive synergy through coordinated efforts. In an effort to achieve success, the band has had to realize that their collected efforts are more important than their individual efforts.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  10.2 Contrast groups and teams.12) After a successful 20 year career as a rock band, and 10 years apart, Laski United has reunited for a tour. Their lead singer, Chuck Corcoran, has returned to the band after a fairly successful solo album. In this scenario, Laski United could be most likely classified as a ________.A) work groupB) work teamC) problem-solving teamD) cross-functional teamE) self-managed teamAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Though when they started out they were probably a team, at this point, the members are functioning as a group, simply coming together to make money.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  10.2 Contrast groups and teams.13) Work groups typically generate more positive synergy than do work teams.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  There is no positive synergy in a work group that would create an overall level of performance greater than the sum of the inputs. A work team, on the other hand, generates positive synergy through coordinated effort.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.2 Contrast groups and teams.14) The primary goal of a work team is information sharing.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Information sharing is the primary goal of a work group. The primary goal of a work team is collective performance.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.2 Contrast groups and teams.15) In the case of a work team, individual efforts result in a level of performance greater than the sum of those individual inputs.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  A work team generates positive synergy through coordinated effort. The individual efforts result in a level of performance greater than the sum of those individual inputs.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.2 Contrast groups and teams.16) Discuss the difference between a work group and a work team.Answer:  A work group is a group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each member perform within his or her area of responsibility. There is no positive synergy that would create an overall level of performance that is greater than the sum of the inputs. A work team generates positive synergy through coordinated effort. Their individual efforts result in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of those individual inputs.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.2 Contrast groups and teams.17) A team consists of employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving the work environment but they do not have the authority to unilaterally implement any of their suggestions. This is most likely to be a ________ team.A) cross-functionalB) virtualC) self-managedD) problem-solvingE) taskAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) In a problem-solving team, members share ideas or suggest how work processes and methods can be improved; they rarely have the authority to unilaterally implement any of their suggestions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.18) Self-managed teams typically consist of ________ employees.A) two to fourB) four to eightC) ten to fifteenD) twenty to thirtyE) forty to fiftyAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Self-managed teams typically consist of ten to fifteen employees.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.19) Which of the following types of teams is most likely to be assembled to improve the efficiency of a company’s production process?A) cross-functionalB) problem-solvingC) self-managedD) criticalE) taskAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Problem-solving teams share ideas or suggest how work processes and methods (such as quality, efficiency, and the work environment), can be improved. They rarely have the authority to unilaterally implement any of their suggestions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.20) ________ teams are groups of employees who perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibilities of their former supervisors.A) CriticalB) Self-managed workC) Cross-functionalD) Problem-solvingE) TaskAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Self-managed work teams are groups of employees who perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibilities of their former supervisors.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.21) Which of the following teams are more likely to be made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level but different work areas?A) problem-solvingB) self-managedC) cross-functionalD) taskE) rapid actionAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Cross-functional teams are teams made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level but different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.22) Which of the following statements is true regarding self-managed work teams?A) Self-managed work teams typically consist of forty to fifty employees.B) Self-managed work teams typically manage conflicts well.C) Members of self-managed work teams typically report lower job satisfaction.D) Self-managed work teams are typically composed of employees from different departments who work independent of each other.E) In the case of self-managed work teams, supervisory positions take on decreased importance.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Self-managed work teams are groups of employees (typically ten to fifteen in number) who perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibilities of their former supervisors. Supervisory positions take on decreased importance and are sometimes even eliminated. Self-managed teams do not typically manage conflicts well. Members of this team report higher levels of job satisfaction than other individuals.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.23) ________ teams are an effective way to allow people from diverse areas within an organization to exchange information, develop new ideas and solve problems, and coordinate complex projects.A) Self-managedB) Problem-solvingC) Cross-functionalD) TaskE) CommandAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Cross-functional teams are teams made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level but different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. They are an effective means of allowing people from diverse areas to exchange information, develop new ideas, solve problems, and coordinate complex projects.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.24) The Boeing Company created a team made up of employees from production, planning, quality control, tooling, design engineering, and information systems to automate shims on the company’s C-17 program. This team is most likely to be an example of a ________ team.A) commandB) cross-functionalC) self-managedD) problem-solvingE) taskAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Cross-functional teams are teams made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level but different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. They are an effective means of allowing people from diverse areas to exchange information, develop new ideas, solve problems, and coordinate complex projects.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.25) Which of the following statements is true regarding a cross-functional team?A) A cross-functional team is made up of employees from different hierarchical levels.B) A cross-functional team is made up of employees from the same department.C) Today, cross-functional teams are rarely used in well-established organizations.D) In the case of a cross-functional team, the early stages of development are typically very short.E) Cross-functional teams are used for developing new ideas and coordinating complex projects.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Cross-functional teams are made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level but different work areas. Today cross-functional teams are widely used in several organizations. Cross-functional teams are an effective means of developing new ideas and coordinating complex projects. Their early stages of development are often long, as members learn to work with diversity and complexity.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.26) Which of the following types of teams allows for collaboration between team members who are physically dispersed?A) problem-solving teamsB) self-managed teamsC) task teamsD) virtual teamsE) command teamsAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Virtual teams use computer technology to unite physically dispersed members and achieve a common goal.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.27) You are vice-president of a division of a large, multi-national company that makes electronic equipment for consumers and the military. Your company has several teams and there are several managers managing those teams. Joan, your director of accounting, has created a team of seven employees from the accounts payable department who meet for three hours a week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency and the work environment. This is an example of a ________ team.A) problem-solvingB) self-managedC) cross-functionalD) virtualE) task-resolutionAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Problem-solving teams share ideas or suggest how work processes and methods (such as quality, efficiency, and the work environment), can be improved. They rarely have the authority to unilaterally implement any of their suggestions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.28) Eva is not getting the results she needs from her data base administration team. She believes that this problem is occurring because the administration team is a virtual team. Which of the following is one of the things that Eva should do to create an effective virtual team?A) Conduct training for improving interpersonal skills.B) Allow more independence among members.C) Monitor progress of the team closely.D) Include peer evaluation in the appraisal system.E) Avoid publicizing team successes company-wide.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) For virtual teams to be effective, management should ensure that (1) trust is established among members; (2) team progress is monitored closely; and (3) the efforts and products of the team are publicized throughout the organization (so the team does not become invisible). The members should be highly monitored, and less independent. Training related to interpersonal skills will not be very effective in the case of a virtual team. Peer evaluation is not related to improving effectiveness of a virtual team.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.29) Janice is your director of sales. Since her team members are located in Europe, Asia, and North America, she has decided to use instant messaging to tie her team members together in order to develop a marketing strategy for a new product line. This is an example of a ________ team.A) problem-solvingB) self-managedC) cross-functionalD) virtualE) task-resolutionAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Virtual teams use computer technology to unite physically dispersed members and achieve a common goal. Janice has created a virtual team.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical Thinking; Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.30) Which type of team is permanent, meets at a regular time, and addresses quality standards?A) Action teamsB) Quality-control teamsC) Cross functional teamsD) Virtual teamsE) Manufacturing teamsAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Quality-control teams are a type of problem-solving team which originated in the manufacturing world but have become common in many other fields, including the medical field.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.31) Cross-functional teams are not easy to manage because power is shifted due to the need for different expertise in different areas. What does this situation create?A) counterproductive work behaviorsB) virtual teamsC) leadership ambiguityD) lack of diversityE) citizenship behaviorsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Conflict can arise when power is shifted due to changing needs of expertise. Creating a climate of trust can aid in reducing undue conflict.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.32) Leadership is especially important in ________, in which different teams coordinate their efforts to produce a desired outcome.A) technical teamsB) self-managed teamsC) problem-solving teamsD) management teamsE) multi-team systemsAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Leadership is especially important in multi-team systems. Here, leaders need to empower teams by delegating responsibility to them, and then play the role of facilitator, making sure the teams work together rather than against one another.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.33) Jack, your director of manufacturing, has created a team of eleven employees from quality control. Jack gives the team members the responsibility of planning and scheduling their own work, and making operating decisions. Also, members of this team evaluate each other’s performance. This is an example of a ________ team.A) problem-solvingB) self-managedC) cross-functionalD) virtualE) task-resolutionAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Self-managed work teams are groups of employees who perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibilities of their former supervisors. These tasks are planning, assigning tasks to members, making operating decisions, taking action on problems, and working with suppliers and customers.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.34) Your company has recently landed a contract to design and manufacture a new state-of-the-art electronic device for the military. This will be a very complex project, requiring many different types of skills. Which of the following types of teams is most suited for the project?A) problem-solvingB) self-managedC) cross-functionalD) virtualE) task-resolutionAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Cross-functional teams are teams made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level but different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. They are an effective means of allowing people from diverse areas to exchange information, develop new ideas, solve problems, and coordinate complex projects such as this one.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.35) Research suggests that when members feel confident to ________ without fear of punishment, ________ can be beneficial and boost team performance.A) speak up; training sessionsB) complain; training sessionsC) complain; conflictD) speak up; conflictE) speak up; gossipAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Disputes can often leave to lower group performance; however, a strong feeling of psychological safety can increase team performance.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.36) Leadership of multiteam systems is not much different than standalone teams.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  While leadership of all teams affects team performance, a multiteam leader must both facilitate coordination between teams and lead each team.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.37) You are a member of a team of eight individuals from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. You are most likely a member of a self-managed work team.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Problem-solving teams are typically composed of 5 to 12 hourly employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Members share ideas or suggest how work processes and methods can be improved; they rarely have the authority to unilaterally implement any of their suggestions.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.38) Virtual teams tend to be less task-oriented than face-to-face teams.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Virtual teams tend to be more task-oriented than face-to-face teams.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.39) One advantage of cross-functional teams is that they are easy to manage.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Cross-functional teams are not easy to manage. Their early stages of development are often long, as members learn to work with diversity and complexity. It takes time to build trust and teamwork, especially among people from different backgrounds with different experiences and perspectives.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.40) Describe and discuss self-managed work teams.Answer:  Self-managed work teams are groups of employees (typically 10 to 15 in number) who perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibilities of their former supervisors. Typically, this includes planning and scheduling of work, assigning tasks to members, collective control over the pace of work, making operating decisions, taking action on problems, and working with suppliers and customers. Fully self-managed work teams even select their own members and have the members evaluate each other’s performance. As a result, supervisory positions take on decreased importance and may even be eliminated.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.41) What is a cross-functional team?Answer:  Cross-functional teams are made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. This is an effective means for allowing people from diverse areas within an organization to exchange information, develop new ideas and solve problems, and coordinate complex projects.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.42) What are some special challenges that virtual teams face? For virtual teams to be effective, what should management ensure?Answer:  Virtual teams may suffer from less social rapport and less direct interaction among members. They aren’t able to duplicate the normal give-and-take of face-to-face discussion. Especially when members haven’t personally met, virtual teams tend to be more task-oriented and exchange less social-emotional information. Not surprisingly, virtual team members report less satisfaction with the group interaction process than do face-to-face teams. For virtual teams to be effective, management should ensure that: (a) trust is established among team members (research has shown that one inflammatory remark in a team member e-mail can severely undermine team trust); (b) team progress is monitored closely (so the team doesn’t lose sight of its goals, and no team member “disappears”); and (c) the efforts and products of the virtual team are publicized throughout the organization (so the team does not become invisible).Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.3 Contrast the five types of team arrangements.43) Which of the following is not one of the key components of effective teams?A) team efficacyB) large sizeC) adequate resourcesD) member flexibilityE) leadership and structureAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The most effective teams have five to nine members. And experts suggest using the smallest number of people who can do the task. Managers often err by making teams too large.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.44) With reference to the team effectiveness model, which of the following is one of the key components of an effective team, included under the category of contextual factors?A) team efficacyB) climate of trustC) common purposeD) social loafingE) specific goalsAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Climate of trust is a contextual factor that affects the effectiveness of teams. Team efficacy, social loafing, specific goals, and common purpose are process related factors that affect the effectiveness of the team.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.45) In a ________ team, the manager’s job becomes more about managing outside the team.A) technicalB) self-managedC) problem-solvingD) taskE) virtualAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) In a self-managed team, team members absorb many of the duties typically assumed by managers. A manager’s job then becomes managing outside (rather than inside) the team.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.46) According to the team effectiveness model, which of the following is a process variable that influences effectiveness of a team?A) leadership and structureB) team efficacyC) member flexibilityD) performance evaluation and reward systemsE) abilities of membersAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Process variables are events within the team that influence effectiveness. Team efficacy is a process variable that influences effectiveness of a team.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.47) The team effectiveness model classifies the key components of effective teams into three general categories; context, composition, and process. Which of the following variables belongs to the composition category?A) adequate resourcesB) conflict levelC) team efficacyD) performance evaluation systemE) personality of team membersAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) The personality of team members is a key component that affects the effectiveness of teams and it belongs to the composition category.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.48) Araceli is a team member in a large corporation. She never speaks in team meetings because she has seen members talk behind each other’s back after the meetings. Members are constantly monitoring the other members’ work, looking for mistakes to point out in a meeting. According to the information provided, which contextual factor is most likely hindering the success of Araceli’s team?A) adequate resourcesB) climate of trustC) team structureD) performance evaluationsE) leadershipAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Araceli doesn’t contribute because she does not feel like the group has a climate of trust. Interpersonal trust facilitates cooperation, reduces the need to monitor each other’s behavior, and bonds members around the belief that others on the team won’t take advantage of them.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.49) In addition to evaluating and rewarding employees for their individual contributions, management should consider using ________ to reinforce team effort and commitment.A) personalized incentivesB) consistent wages for all team membersC) individual performance evaluationsD) fixed hourly wagesE) profit sharingAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) In addition to evaluating and rewarding employees for their individual contributions, management should modify the traditional, individually oriented evaluation and reward system to reflect team performance. Group-based appraisals, profit sharing, and gainsharing are examples of team reward systems.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.50) With reference to the team effectiveness model, what does the personality factor of team composition focus on?A) members’ knowledge and skillsB) members’ leadership qualitiesC) members’ conscientiousness and openness to experienceD) members’ role allocationE) members’ cultural and demographic diversityAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The personality aspect of team composition states that personality significantly influences individual employee behavior. Teams that rate higher on mean levels of conscientiousness and openness to experience tend to perform better. Abilities of members, allocation of roles, and diversity of members are other factors of team composition. Leadership and structure is a contextual factor.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.51) Which of the following statements is true regarding a culturally diverse team?A) Elements of diversity do not interfere with team processes.B) Culturally homogeneous teams have more difficulty learning to work with each other than culturally heterogeneous teams do.C) Generally, newly formed culturally diverse teams underperform when compared to newly formed culturally homogeneous teams.D) Cultural diversity within a team is not advisable for those tasks that call for a variety of viewpoints.E) Solving problems is more difficult for culturally homogeneous teams than it is for culturally heterogeneous teams. Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Evidence indicates that elements of diversity interfere with team processes, at least in the short term. Cultural diversity does seem to be an asset for tasks that call for a variety of viewpoints. But culturally heterogeneous teams have more difficulty learning to work with each other and solving problems. Although newly formed culturally diverse teams underperform as compared to newly formed culturally homogeneous teams, the differences disappear after about 3 months.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.52) According to studies, when team members share an accurate mental model they ________.A) have an indifferent attitude toward their workB) have frequent interactionsC) face acute stressD) work independentlyE) display increased social loafing tendenciesAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) A review of 65 independent studies of team cognition found that teams with shared mental models engaged in more frequent interactions with one another, were more motivated, had more positive attitudes toward their work, and had higher levels of objectively rated performance.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.53) Diversity is an asset for teams where tasks ________.A) require a variety of viewpointsB) are simpleC) involve emotional laborD) are highly technical E) required for completing the work are highly interdependentAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Cultural diversity does seem to be an asset for tasks that call for a variety of viewpoints. However, in other circumstances, diversity seems to interfere with team processes in the short term. Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.54) You are the manager of a software design firm that develops software programs for clients using teams of specialists. One of your most successful teams has been together for nearly 5 years. In the past, this team has performed effectively, and you have been very satisfied with the team’s output. Recently, however, you have noticed a marked decrease in the team’s performance. You investigate to determine the problem. After interviewing all 7 team members, you determine that one of the team members performs routine administrative tasks that are rarely visible to any of the other team members. You suspect that this team member may be loafing off and lagging in his duties. You could most likely improve that team member’s output by ________.A) encouraging him to work more independentlyB) making his work clearly visible to the other team membersC) empowering the team member to make decisionsD) providing him with administrative trainingE) giving him additional assignments to completeAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) This team member is engaging in social loafing. Effective teams undermine this tendency by making members individually and jointly accountable for the team’s purpose, goals, and approach. Therefore, members should be clear on what they are individually responsible for and what they are jointly responsible for on the team.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.55) During an interview with one team member, you learn that several members of the team have had conflicts regarding the content of a task to which the team was recently assigned. Are these conflicts likely to be reducing the group’s productivity?A) Yes, because interpersonal conflicts always hurt a team’s performance.B) No, because conflicts based on personal animosity rarely affect team operations.C) Yes, because task-related conflicts lead to poor team decisions.D) No, because task-related conflicts usually benefit the performance of a team.E) Yes, because disagreements about tasks usually lessen groupthink.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Interpersonal conflicts are almost always dysfunctional but the conflict involved in this case is a task conflict. Conflict on a team isn’t necessarily bad. On teams performing nonroutine activities, disagreements among members about task content (called task conflicts) stimulate discussion, promote critical assessment of problems and options, and can lead to better team decisions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.56) People scoring high on ________ are valuable in teams because they’re good at backing up fellow team members and at sensing when that support is truly needed.A) conscientiousnessB) positivityC) emotional stabilityD) agreeablenessE) openness to experienceAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Conscientious people are valuable in teams because they’re good at backing up other team members, and they’re also good at sensing when that support is truly needed.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.57) Teams that are composed of people who score high on ________ are more creative and innovative.A) emotional stabilityB) agreeablenessC) openness to experienceD) extraversionE) conscientiousnessAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Team members scoring high on openness to experience communicate better with one another and throw out more ideas, which makes teams composed of open people more creative and innovative.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.58) Teams that consist of team members that score ________ are more likely to perform poorly.A) high on conscientiousnessB) high on openness to experienceC) high on emotional stabilityD) low on extraversionE) low on agreeablenessAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Teams that rate higher on mean levels of conscientiousness and openness to experience tend to perform better, and the minimum level of team member agreeableness also matters; teams perform poorly when they have one or more highly disagreeable members.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.59) Amohalko Consulting is an independent consulting firm specializing in offering financial advice to companies in need. Amohalko operates in an independent contractor fashion, providing name recognition to consultants as well as basic needs such as office space and computers but nothing much past that. Amohalko Consulting has been losing business over the last three quarters and the average stay of a consultant is less than one year. Most likely, Amohalko Consulting is suffering from which problem?A) inadequate resourcesB) poor LeadershipC) flawed structureD) climate of mistrustE) poor reward systemAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Amohalko is not providing its teams with sufficient resources to conduct their work. A scarcity of resources directly reduces the ability of a team to perform its job effectively.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.60) ________ suggests that attributes such as age or the date of joining should help us predict turnover.A) Employee mobilityB) Organizational demographyC) Residential mobilityD) Demographic environmentE) Population dynamicsAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The degree to which members of a work unit (group, team, or department) share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, is the subject of organizational demography.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.61) Not only is a climate of trust important within a team but so is ________.A) that teams have complete trust in their supervisorB) that trust levels are balanced in favor of the hardest working individualsC) that trust levels are symmetrical and balanced between team membersD) that team members trust one another but are suspicious of the supervisorE) that teams form a coalition against other teams within the organization.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Imbalanced trust levels or trust levels that exist only between certain team members can mitigate any performance advantages of a high overall level of trust.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.62) According to the concept of organizational demography, if team members have dissimilar experiences, it will lead to ________.A) increased employee satisfactionB) decreased level of conflictsC) higher employee motivationD) higher employee turnoverE) higher team efficacyAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Organizational demography suggests that attributes such as age or the date of joining should help us predict turnover. The logic goes like this: Turnover will be greater among those with dissimilar experiences because communication is more difficult. Conflict and power struggles are more likely and are more severe when they occur. Increased conflict makes membership less attractive, so employees are more likely to quit.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.63) Diversity of members includes all of the following except ________.A) ageB) sexC) marital statusD) raceE) educational levelAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) While marital status is an important element of the individuals life, it is not considered an important demographic for the diversity of the organization.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.64) Which of the following terms indicates the degree to which members of a work unit (group, team, or department) share a common attribute, such as age, sex, race, or educational level?A) demographic environmentB) residential mobilityC) organizational demographyD) population dynamicsE) employee mobilityAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The degree to which members of a work unit (group, team, or department) share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, is the subject of organizational demography.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.65) Generally speaking, the most effective teams have ________ members.A) two to fourB) three to fiveC) five to nineD) ten to fifteenE) fifteen to twentyAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Generally speaking, the most effective teams have five to nine members.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.66) The term “Hives” refers to which group?A) ingroup team membersB) outgroup team membersC) freelancersD) organizational citizensE) management teamsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Freelancing is the solo work of people who have a high degree of specialization in their field; however, it is sometimes hard for these individuals to market themselves. By forming “hives” with other freelancers, these specialists have an easier time finding work.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.67) Cultural diversity seems to be ________ for tasks that call for a variety of viewpoints; also, these teams have ________ learning to work with each other and problem solving.A) difficult; collaboration whileB) an asset; difficultyC) difficulty; collaboration whileD) collaborative; indifferenceE) indifferent; difficultyAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) While diversity can be good for generating a variety of viewpoints, groups with high levels of cultural diversity have difficulty learning to work with one another, at least initially.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.68) Which of the following statements is true regarding size of teams?A) Generally speaking, the most effective teams have twelve to fifteen members.B) When teams have excess members, cohesiveness declines.C) As team size increases, social loafing decreases.D) When teams have excess members, mutual accountability increases.E) As team size increases, coordination problems tend to decrease.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) Generally speaking, the most effective teams have five to nine members. When teams have excess members, cohesiveness and mutual accountability decline, social loafing increases, and more people communicate less.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.69) Individuals with a positive ________ identity but without a positive ________ identity can become fixed to their teams and unwilling to coordinate with other teams within the organization.A) organizational; self-efficacyB) self-efficacy; virtualC) virtual; individualD) individual; teamE) team; organizationalAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Teams do not operate in a vacuum and therefore coordination is vital.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.70) A team that has a good plan, but is also willing to adjust their master plan and adapt when conditions call for it demonstrates high ________, an important variable in successful team processes.A) goal specificityB) goal congruencyC) social loafingD) diversityE) reflexivityAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Reflexivity is the team characteristic of reflecting on and adjusting the master plan when necessary. It is considered part of the process variables.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.71) Effective teams begin their work by ________.A) allocating roles to team members according to their personalities and preferencesB) analyzing the team’s missionC) developing a climate of trust among team membersD) developing team efficacyE) discussing individual goalsAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Effective teams begin by analyzing the team’s mission, developing goals to achieve that mission, and creating strategies for achieving the goals.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.72) In the case of a team, when each member’s contribution is not clearly visible, ________.A) team efficacy tends to increaseB) team cohesiveness tends to decreaseC) motivation of the team members tends to increaseD) team members tend to decrease their effortsE) mutual accountability of the team members tends to decreaseAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) In the case of a team, when each member’s contribution is not clearly visible, individuals tend to decrease their effort.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.73) Members of successful teams put a tremendous amount of time and effort into discussing, shaping, and agreeing on ________ which then provides direction and guidance under any and all conditions.A) the level of individual contributionB) allocation of resourcesC) a common purposeD) allocation of rolesE) developing team efficacyAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Members of successful teams put a tremendous amount of time and effort into discussing, shaping, and agreeing on a purpose that belongs to them both collectively and individually. This common purpose, when accepted by the team provides direction and guidance under any and all conditions.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.74) Alberto’s team is evaluating and developing the database for the water pollution data of three cities. He wants to improve the team efficacy of his team. Which of the following actions can Alberto take to increase team efficacybefore the project starts?A) plan a team outing for the team membersB) make sure that his team is not comprised of more than nine peopleC) spend considerable time evaluating team members and allocating proper roles for eachD) provide client’s software and database training for all the team membersE) create team goals that are very challengingAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Efficacy means that a team believes it can succeed in the job and goal that is placed before them. There are two ways of increasing efficacy: 1) provide training to improve skills and increase confidence, and 2) help the team achieve small, incremental successes.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.75) Effective teams have confidence in themselves and believe they can succeed. This confidence is called ________.A) social facilitationB) goal congruenceC) social loafingD) team efficacyE) self-serving biasAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Efficacy means that a team believes it can succeed in the job and goal that is placed before them. There are two ways to increasing efficacy: 1) provide training to improve skills and increase confidence, and 2) help the team achieve small, incremental successes.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.76) Which of the following is most likely to increase team efficacy?A) providing measurable goalsB) helping the team achieve small successesC) improving the reflexivity of the teamD) ensuring that team goals are challengingE) reducing the number of members on a teamAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Efficacy means that a team believes it can succeed in the job and goal that is placed before them. There are two ways to increasing efficacy: 1) provide training to improve skills and increase confidence, and 2) help the team achieve small, incremental successes.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.77) When teams are under acute stress, they are particularly likely to have ________.A) inaccurate mental modelsB) high team efficacyC) goal congruenceD) a self-serving biasE) high reflexivityAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Effective teams share accurate mental models, or knowledge and beliefs (a “psychological map”) about how the work gets done. If team members have the wrong mental models, which is particularly likely with teams under acute stress, their performance suffers.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.78) If team members have similar mental models then it means that the team members have similar ________.A) roles within the teamB) self-efficacyC) knowledge and skillsD) beliefs about how the work gets doneE) attitudes towards social loafingAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Mental models indicate knowledge and beliefs of team members about how the work gets done. If team members have different ideas about how to do things, the team will fight over how to do things rather than focus on what needs to be done.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.79) Which type of conflict is almost always dysfunctional?A) task conflictB) efficacy conflictC) relationship conflictD) resource conflictE) goal conflictAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Conflict on a team isn’t necessarily bad and can actually improve team effectiveness. Relationship conflicts, those based on interpersonal incompatibilities, tension, and animosity toward others, are almost always dysfunctional.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.80) Coasting on the group effort is termed ________.A) emotional laborB) cognitive dissonanceC) social loafingD) positivity offsetE) self-concordanceAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Individuals can engage in social loafing and coast on the group’s effort because their particular contributions can’t be identified. Effective teams undermine this tendency by making members individually and jointly accountable for the team’s purpose, goals, and approach.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.81) On teams performing nonroutine activities, ________ conflicts stimulate discussion, promote critical assessment of problems and options, and can lead to better team decisions.A) relationshipB) efficacyC) resourceD) taskE) socialAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) On teams performing nonroutine activities, disagreements among members about task content (called task conflicts) stimulate discussion, promote critical assessment of problems and options, and can lead to better team decisions.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.82) Teams composed of highly agreeable people are more creative and innovative.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Teams composed of people who score high on openness to experience are more creative and innovative. Open team members communicate better with one another and throw out more ideas, which makes teams composed of open people more creative and innovative.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.83) The term “team cohesion” means members are emotionally attached to one another.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Some team members just gel with teams and feel an emotional affect for the team and the other members.Diff: 1AACSB:  Interpersonal Relations and teamworkQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.84) When teams have excess members, cohesiveness and mutual accountability decline.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  When teams have excess members, cohesiveness and mutual accountability decline, social loafing increases, and more people communicate less.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.85) Task conflicts are almost always dysfunctional.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Relationship conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. On teams performing nonroutine activities, disagreements among members about task content (called task conflicts) stimulate discussion, promote critical assessment of problems and options, and can lead to better team decisions.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.86) The team effectiveness model identifies three categories of key components making up effective teams. What are these three categories? Give examples of each category.Answer:  The key components making up effective teams can be subsumed into three general categories. a) The first category is related to the resources and contextual influences that make teams effective. The four contextual factors that appear to be most significantly related to team performance are the presence of adequate resources, effective leadership, a climate of trust, and a performance evaluation and reward system that reflects team contributions. b) The second category relates to the team’s composition. It takes into consideration the abilities of team members, their personalities, size of the team, and preferences of team members.   c) Finally, process variables reflect the things that go on in the team that influence effectiveness. These include member commitment to a common plan and purpose, establishment of specific team goals, team efficacy, establishment of mental models, a managed level of conflict, and minimization of social loafing.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.87) How does climate of trust improve effectiveness of teams?Answer:  Interpersonal trust among team members facilitates cooperation, reduces the need to monitor each other’s behavior, and bonds members around the belief that others on the team won’t take advantage of them. Team members are more likely to take risks and expose vulnerabilities when they believe they can trust others on their team. And, as we will discuss later in the book, trust is the foundation of leadership. It allows a team to accept and commit to its leader’s goals and decisions.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.88) Discuss the effect of team size on effectiveness of teams.Answer:  Generally speaking, the most effective teams have five to nine members. And experts suggest using the smallest number of people who can do the task. Unfortunately, managers often err by making teams too large. It may require only four or five members to develop diversity of views and skills, while coordination problems can increase exponentially as team members are added. When teams have excess members, cohesiveness and mutual accountability decline, social loafing increases, and more people communicate less. Members of large teams have trouble coordinating with one another, especially under time pressure. Keep teams at nine or fewer members.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.89) What is team efficacy? What can management do to increase team efficacy?Answer:  Effective teams have confidence in themselves; they believe they can succeed. We call this team efficacy. Teams that have been successful raise their beliefs about future success, which, in turn, motivates them to work harder. The two ways in which the management can increase team efficacy are: (1) helping the team achieve small successes that build confidence, (2) providing training to improve members’ technical and interpersonal skills.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.90) Discuss the impact of conflicts on effectiveness of teams.Answer:  Conflict on a team isn’t necessarily bad. Teams completely devoid of conflict are likely to become apathetic and stagnant. Thus, conflict—but not all types—can actually improve team effectiveness. Relationship conflicts—those based on interpersonal compatibilities, tension, and animosity toward others—are almost always dysfunctional. However, on teams performing nonroutine activities, disagreements among members about task content (called task conflicts) stimulate discussion, promote critical assessment of problems and options, and can lead to better team decisions.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.91) What is social loafing? How can the management undermine the tendency of social loafing?Answer:  Individuals can engage in social loafing and coast on the group’s effort because their particular contributions can’t be identified. Effective teams undermine this tendency by making members individually and jointly accountable for the team’s purpose, goals, and approach. Therefore, members should be clear on what they are individually responsible for and what they are jointly responsible for on the team.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.92) You are on a team which features individuals high in openness and emotional stability. What is the likely result of task conflict within your team? Why is this?Answer:  While answers will vary slightly, the response should feature some discussion of how task performance will enhance the performance of this team because teams high in emotional stability and openness are able to leverage the conflict and use it to improve performance.Diff: 3AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.93) What is the most simplistic way to maintain a shared mental model?Answer:  The most simplistic way to maintain a shared mental model is to share conversation about what is happening while the team is in operation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.4 Identify the characteristics of effective teams.94) Exercises that help individuals become team players include workshops on ________.A) negotiation B) individualismC) goal setting D) event planning E) recruiting Answer:  AExplanation:  A) Communication and negotiation are important team necessities. Workshops help employees improve their problem-solving, communication, negotiation, conflict-management, and coaching skills.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.5 Explain how organizations can create team players.95) You need to hire an analyst for an important project team. It is essential that the new employee work well on the already established team in order to meet the project’s challenging deadlines. The most talented candidate doesn’t have any team experience and when asked in the interview about his team experience he replied, “I prefer to work alone. I’m much more efficient alone.” What should you do?A) Hire him and train him.B) Hire him and hope that he learns.C) Hire him and redesign the job.D) Look for a different candidate.E) Hire him and assign him a mentor.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) The candidate should not be hired. Creating teams often means resisting the urge to hire the best talent no matter what. The project has looming deadlines, so training isn’t an option. Hoping that he’ll learn is too much of a risk to the project, and not fair to the existing team. Redesigning the job is not an option.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  10.5 Explain how organizations can create team players.96) Evidence shows that teams that switch from a competitive to a cooperative system do not immediately ________.A) make poor decisionsB) make rushed decisionsC) share informationD) have conflictsE) distrust each otherAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Teams that switch from a competitive to a cooperative system do not share information and they tend to make rushed, poor-quality decisions. The low trust typical of the competitive group will not be readily replaced by high trust.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.5 Explain how organizations can create team players.97) Which of the following statements is true regarding a reward system that attempts to create good team players?A) The reward system should encourage competitive efforts.B) Rewards given to individuals should be based on peer evaluation.C) The reward system should ignore individual contributions.D) Performance-based rewards could include a bonus based on achievement of team goals.E) The reward system should discourage cooperative efforts.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) In order to create good team players, an organization’s reward system must be reworked to encourage cooperative efforts rather than competitive ones. This doesn’t mean individual contributions should be ignored; rather, they should be balanced with selfless contributions to the team. In order to encourage cooperative efforts, the reward system can include a bonus based on achievement of team goals.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.5 Explain how organizations can create team players.98) Which of the following techniques can be used for increasing effectiveness of teams?A) Implement a reward system that encourages competitive efforts.B) The appraisal system should take into consideration peer evaluation.C) Avoid giving promotions and pay raises for individual contributions.D) Training should be provided to those candidates who lack team skills.E) The reward system should discourage cooperative efforts.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) In order to create good team players, an organization’s reward system must be reworked to encourage cooperative efforts rather than competitive ones. This doesn’t mean individual contributions should be ignored; rather, they should be balanced with selfless contributions to the team. Training should be provided to those candidates who lack team skills.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.5 Explain how organizations can create team players.99) Myriam has been a standout team member at Amohalka Consulting for several years. She is always the first person to train new colleagues, share information, help resolve team conflicts, and master new and modern skills. Clearly, Myriam also does what in the organization?A) makes individual contributionsB) seeks promotions and pay raisesC) has a low level of trust in her teammates abilitiesD) both A and CE) both B and CAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) As a standout employee, Myriam clearly knows that her individual contributions in her work are just as important as her contributions to the team effort.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  10.5 Explain how organizations can create team players.100) For creating good team players, an organization’s reward system must be reworked to encourage competitive efforts rather than cooperative ones.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  For creating good team players, an organization’s reward system must be reworked to encourage cooperative efforts rather than competitive ones.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.5 Explain how organizations can create team players.101) Teams that switch from a competitive to a cooperative system tend to immediately start making better-quality decisions.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Teams that switch from a competitive to a cooperative system do not immediately share information and make rushed, poor-quality decisions.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.5 Explain how organizations can create team players.102) Explain how organizations can create team players.Answer:  The primary options managers have for trying to turn individuals into team players include:a) Selection. Some people already possess the interpersonal skills to be effective team players. When hiring team members, in addition to the technical skills required to fill the job, care should be taken to ensure that candidates can fulfill their team roles as well as technical requirements. Many job candidates don’t have team skills. This is especially true for those socialized around individual contributions. When faced with such candidates, managers basically have three options. The candidates can undergo training to “make them into team players.” If this isn’t possible or doesn’t work, the other two options are to transfer the individual to another unit within the organization, without teams (if this possibility exists); or don’t hire the candidate. In established organizations that decide to redesign jobs around teams, it should be expected that some employees will resist being team players and may be untrainable. Unfortunately, such people typically become casualties of the team approach.b) Training. On a more optimistic note, a large proportion of people raised on the importance of individual accomplishments can be trained to become team players. Training specialists conduct exercises that allow employees to experience the satisfaction that teamwork can provide. They typically offer workshops to help employees improve their problem-solving, communication, negotiation, conflict-management, and coaching skills. Employees also learn the five-stage group development model.c) Rewards. The reward system needs to be reworked to encourage cooperative efforts rather than competitive ones. Promotions, pay raises, and other forms of recognition should be given to individuals for how effective they are as a collaborative team member. This doesn’t mean individual contributions are ignored; rather, they are balanced with selfless contributions to the team. Examples of behaviors that should be rewarded include training new colleagues, sharing information with teammates, helping to resolve team conflicts, and mastering new skills that the team needs but in which it is deficient.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.5 Explain how organizations can create team players.103) Work should be performed by an individual if ________.A) the work is complex and requires different perspectivesB) the work creates a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is more than the aggregate of individual goalsC) the work is simple and does not require diverse inputD) several tasks that are interdependent are to be performed for completing the workE) performing the work requires learning a new technology or understanding a new systemAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Simple tasks that don’t require diverse input are better left to individuals, whereas complex tasks that require diverse input are best accomplished by teams.A successful team identifies a common goal; together, members of the team work to accomplish more than they could had they worked individually. Using teams makes sense when there is interdependence between tasks—the success of the whole depends on the success of the individual parts.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.6 Decide when to use individuals instead of teams.104) As compared to individual work, teamwork ________.A) involves fewer meetingsB) takes more timeC) needs less resourcesD) decreases communication demandsE) decreases the need for conflict managementAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Teamwork takes more time and often more resources than individual work. Teams have increased communication demands, conflicts to manage, and meetings to run. So the benefits of using teams have to exceed the costs, and that’s not always the case.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.6 Decide when to use individuals instead of teams.105) Teamwork takes more time and often more resources than individual work.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Teams can be costly. Teamwork takes more time and often more resources than individual work. Teams have increased communication demands, conflicts to manage, and meetings to run. So the benefits of using teams have to exceed the costs, and that’s not always the case.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.6 Decide when to use individuals instead of teams.106) Teams should be used when tasks are interdependent.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Using teams makes sense when there is interdependence between tasks—the success of the whole depends on the success of each one, and the success of each one depends on the success of the others.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.6 Decide when to use individuals instead of teams.107) What are some of the cautions to be aware of when using teams? What tests should be applied to see if a team fits the situation?Answer:  Teams have increased communication demands, conflicts to be managed, and meetings to be run. It has been suggested that three tests be applied to see if a team fits the situation. First, can the work be done better by more than one person? A good indicator is the complexity of the work and the need for different perspectives. Simple tasks that don’t require diverse input are probably better left to individuals. Second, does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is more than the aggregate of individual goals? The final test to assess whether teams fit the situation is: Are the members of the group interdependent? Teams make sense where there is interdependence between tasks; where the success of the whole depends on the success of each one and the success of each one depends on the success of the others.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  10.6 Decide when to use individuals instead of teams.