Gestalt theorists had argued that (contra the atomistic approach of many behaviorists), one could not understand how an organism sensed the environment without attention to the field of perception as a whole. Any one percept [bit of perception] was likely to have its meaning only in relation to others writes John Levi Martin in his article What Is Field Theory He also noted that Tolman and Brunswik (1935) went farther, and argued that perception had to be understood not as the passive internalization of sensation, but the organism’s attempt to navigate a world that had its own causal texture. hence the trick was to get the principles that would allow for effective action.
All the previous attempts to develop the theory that would’ve had explained these ambiguities were unsuccessful, and Lewin was the one who put field theory on the map in social psychology (Marrow 1969, p. 13). In his works Lewin claimed that the field theory was inspired by the works of Einstein (Lewin, 1951), but it is clearly seen that from his definition of field that it was Gestalt psychology that gave it the background. According to Lewin the field is a totality of coexisting facts which are conceived of as mutually dependent. Lewin’s theory is complex as it addresses numerous fields of research and it includes the theories and hypothesis about the different aspects of social sciences.
It is also that overcoming resistance to change has been the focus of numerous studies since the classic 1948 study of resistance to change by Coch and French. Kurt Lewin’s well-known approach to overcoming resistance to change consists of three stages. The three stages are unfreezing, changing, and refreezing (Lewin, 1947). Lewin assumes that in any situation there are both driving and restraining forces that influence any change that may occur.
Driving forces are those forces affecting a situation that are pushing in a particular direction. they tend to initiate a change and keep it going. In terms of improving productivity in a work group, pressure from a supervisor, incentive earnings, and competition may be examples of driving forces.
Restraining forces are forces acting to restrain or decrease the driving forces. Apathy, hostility, and poor maintenance of equipment may be examples of restraining forces against increased production. Equilibrium is reached when the sum of the driving forces equals the sum of the restraining forces
This equilibrium, or present level of productivity, can be raised or lowered by changes in the relationship between the driving and the restraining forces.
This theory is a valuable for the nursing practice as it gives the nurses the understanding of the impact that the environmental, surrounding the patient factors make on his/her behavior and the behavior of the patients. It emphasizes the importance of creating the appropriate conditions for the patient to get better in addition to the medical and psychological treatment the nurses provide them. The theory of change also gives the nurses the understanding of how the process of change occurs, gives the information about the methods and strategies of resistance to the changes, thus allowing them to introduce the changes in their practice more effectively. It also allows the nurses to understand their patients better thus facilitating the process of therapy both for