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CHAPTER 4LAW ENFORCEMENT TODAYLearning ObjectivesAfter reading this chapter, students should:1. List the four basic responsibilities of the police.2. Explain how intelligence-led policing works and how it benefits modern police departments.3. Identify the differences between the police academy and field training as learning tools for recruits.4. Describe some of the benefits that female police officers bring to law enforcement. 5. Identify the main advantage of a racially and ethnically diverse police force. 6. Indicate some of the most important law enforcement agencies under the control of the Department of Homeland Security.7. Identify the duties of the FBI. 8. Analyze the importance of private security today.Lesson Plan Correlated to PowerPointsI. The Responsibilities of the Police Learning Objective 1: List the four basic responsibilities of the police.A. Enforcing Laws i. The police officer’s role as a “crime fighter” ii. Clear mandate to seek out and apprehend those who have violated the law iii. Research shows that police officers only spend about half of their time enforcing the law or dealing with crimes. The rest of their time is spent on order maintenance, and service provision. B. Providing Services i. A duty “to serve the community” ii. Numerous services performed, including directing traffic, performing emergency medical procedures, counseling those involved in domestic disputes, providing directions for tourists, and finding lost children iii. Often among the first to arrive at disaster scenes to conduct search and rescue operations Media Tool “Law Enforcement Partnership with Domestic Violence Prevention” A short clip about a partnership between police and domestic violence prevention agencies C. Preventing Crime i. Possibly the most controversial responsibility of the police ii. Two predictable responses when crime rates begin to rise in a communitya. Punish convicted criminals with stricter laws and more severe penaltiesb. Demand that the police “do something” to prevent crimes from occurring in the first place iii. Police can prevent crime on a limited basis through a deterrent effect D. Preserving the Peace i. Related to preventing crime ii. Have legal authority to use power of arrest, or even force, in situations in which no crime has occurred, but might occur in the immediate futureII. A Short History of the American PoliceLearning Objective 2: Explain how intelligence-led policing works and how it benefits modern police departments.A. Modern society relies on law enforcement officers to control and prevent crimeB. In the early days police services had little to do with crime control i. Policing efforts of first American cities were directed toward controlling certain groups of people (slaves and Native Americans), delivering goods, regulating activities, maintaining health and sanitation, controlling gambling and vice, and managing livestock and other animals ii. These police services were performed mostly by volunteers iii. Often volunteers were organized in the night watch system, brought over from England by colonists in the seventeenth centuryC. The Evolution of American Law Enforcement i. Night watchmen were required to do little a. As the population of American cities grew, so did the need for public order ii. Early Police Departmentsa. In 1833, Philadelphia was the first city to employ both day and night watchmen through “reactive patrol units” geared toward enforcing the law and preventing crimeb. Five years later, Boston formed the first organized police department1. Consisted of six full-time officers2. Modeled after the London Metropolitan Policec. In 1844, New York City set the foundation for the modern police department by combining its day and night watches under the control of a single police chief iii. The Political Era a. Many early police officers were hardworking, honest, and devoted to serving and protecting the public; however, as a whole the quality of American police service was poor. The reasons are:1. Recruitment and promotion of police officers was intricately tied into the politics of the day  2. Police officers received their jobs as a result of political connections, not because of their skills or knowledgeb. Corruption was rampant during the political era of policing from 1840 to 19301. Police salaries were relatively low2. Many officers saw their positions as opportunities to make extra income through illegal activities3. Bribery was common: “favors”, “contribution” 4. Referred to as the patronage system or the “spoils system” because the political victors gained the spoils What If Scenario What if…you were a new police recruit and you knew about a police officer who is taking bribes from certain criminals in exchange for overlooking their criminal activity. What would you do?  iv. The Reform Eraa. O.W. Wilson and A. Vollmer, promoted a style of policing known as the professional model 1. Police chiefs took more control over their departments2. Police departments in many major cities were reorganized i. Midlevel positions were added to the force as majors or assistant chiefsCould develop and implement crime-fighting strategiesCould more closely supervise individual officers3. Police chefs tried to consolidate their power by bringing large areas of a city under their control 4. This trend benefited law enforcement agents in numerous ways i. Increase of salaries ii. Improvement of working conditions iii. Women and members of minority groups were given opportunities5. This trend benefited police administrators i. Greater extent of control over officers ii. Controlling effectiveness iii. Discouraging any contact with citizens that did not relate to law enforcement v. The Community Eraa. Civil rights movement, protests against war in Vietnam, poor relations between the police and African American communitiesb. The community era of policing may have started with several government initiatives that took place in 1968c. In the 1970s police administrators were forced to combine efforts to improve community relations with aggressive and innovative crime-fighting strategies1. Proactive strategies aim at stopping crimes before they are committed2. Community policing is based on interactions between officers and citizens developing into a partnership for preventing and fighting crime Media Tool “Community Policing and Hate Crimes” A short clip about the value of community policing in the fight against hate crimes.  D. Policing Today: Intelligence, Terrorism, and Technology i. Intelligence-Led Policing a. Predictive policing that relies on data – intelligence – concerning past crime patterns to predict future crime patterns. ii. The Challenges of Counterterrorisma. Anti-terrorism policing involves gathering intelligence and preventing terrorist acts before they occur.b. Police departments and sheriffs’ offices are gathering intelligence related to terrorism c. Challenges include cooperation and information sharing across agencies and scarce resources iii. Law Enforcement 2.0 a. Increased reliance on social media technology b. Online Investigations and Intelligence1. Criminals leave evidence of their crimes in messages, tweets, photos, videos, tags, etc.2. About 90% of law enforcement agencies monitor social media3. Facebook undercoverc. Technology on the Beat1. Technology improves the capabilities of officers2. Special applications on smartphones and tablet computers allow officers to access databases What If Scenario What if . . . your local police department was given a federal grant to develop an intelligence-led policing unit (ILP) that could operate for a period of one year in your area.  What steps would you take towards implementing this unit?  What types of criminal activity are conducive to pattern tracking under intelligence-led policing?  What sources can you rely on to gather intelligence?  Give an example of how ILP would work for solving drug crimes.  What about auto theft cases?  III. Recruitment and Training: Becoming a Police OfficerLearning Objective 3: Identify the differences between the police academy and field training as learning tools for recruits.A. Basic Requirements i. U.S. citizenship ii. No previous felony convictions iii. Eligibility for driving license iv. 21 years of age v. Meeting weight and sight requirements vi. Background Checks and Testsa. Drug testsb. Review of education, military, and driving recordsc. Credit checksd. Interviews with spouses, acquaintances, and previous employers e. Physical agility or fitness test  vii. Educational Requirementsa. 82% of all local police departments requires at least high school diplomab. Recruits with college or university experience are generally thought to have an advantage in hiring and promotionB. Training i. Probationary period six to eighteen months, that includesa. Academy Training1. Controlled, militarized environment 2. Laws of search and seizure3. Arrest and Interrogation4. Use of weapons5. Procedures of securing crime scene6. Procedures of interviewing witnesses7. First aid8. Self-defense9. Terrorism related training Media Tool “Discover Policing” A website that provides information about policing and recruitment . b. In the Field1. A recruit is paired with an experienced police officer FTO – field training officerIV. Women and Minorities in Policing Today Learning Objective 4: Describe some of the benefits that female police officers bring to law enforcement.Learning Objective 5: Identify the main advantage of a racially and ethnically diverse police force.A. Antidiscrimination Law and Affirmative Action i. The 1964 Civil Rights Act and its 1972 amendment guaranteed  members of minority groups and woman equal access to jobs in law enforcement ii. Establishing of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) iii. Affirmative action programs were developed to increase the diversity of law enforcement employeesa. By giving certain advantages to woman and members of minority groups in the hiring process  B. Working Women: Gender and Law Enforcement i. Added Scrutinya. Women hold relatively few leadership positions in American policingb. Women must deal with the assumption that they are physically weak, mentally  soft, and generally unsuited for the rigors of the jobc. Male officers try to protect female officers by keeping them out of hazardous situation, thereby denying them the opportunity to prove themselves ii. Tokenism a. The belief that they have been hired or promoted to fulfill their diversity requirements and have not earned their positionC. Minority Report: Race and Ethnicity in Law Enforcement i. Double Marginalitya. Suspicion that minority police officers face from their colleagues and from the minority community ii. The Benefits of a Diverse Police Forcea. An integrated police force could develop a better relationship with the community and therefore do a more effective job maintaining law and order Media Tool “Minorities in the Police Force” A short clip about the challenges that police officers face and how Maryland attempts to diversify the police.  V. Public and Private Law Enforcement Learning Objective 6: Indicate some of the most important law enforcement agencies under the control of the Department of Homeland Security.Learning Objective 7: Identify the duties of the FBI.Learning Objective 8: Analyze the importance of private security today.A. Multi-layering of law enforcement consists of a wide network of local, state, and federal law enforcement agenciesB. Municipal Law Enforcement Agencies i. Have the broadest authority to apprehend criminal suspects, maintain order, and provide services to the community ii. Usually responsible for a wide spectrum of duties Media Tool “Gangs in San Diego North County” A short clip about gang activity and police efforts in San Diego. C. Sheriffs and County Law Enforcement i. Sheriffa. An important figure in American law enforcementb. Almost every one of more than 3,000 counties in the United States (except those in Alaska) have onec. In the majority of states, they are elected1. As elected officials, may not have a law enforcement background2. Are also politicians ii. Size and Responsibility of Sheriff’s Departmentsa. Vary in sizeb. Most are assigned duties by state law1. Eighty percent of sheriff’s departments have the primary responsibility for investigating violent crimes in their jurisdiction2. Other common responsibilities include: i. Investigating drug crimes ii. Maintaining the county jail iii. Carrying out civil and criminal processes within county lines iv. Keeping order in the county courthouse v. Collecting taxes vi. Enforcing orders of the court iii. The County Coroner a. Also known as a medical examinerb. Elected official on the county levelc. Has general mandate to investigate “all sudden, unexplained, unnatural, or suspicious deaths reported to the office”1. Ultimately responsible for determining the cause of death2. Performs autopsies and assists in homicide investigationsD. State Police and Highway Patrols i. Created for three reasonsa. Assist local police agenciesb. Investigate criminal activities that cross jurisdictionsc. Provide law enforcement in rural and other areas without local police ii. State police agencies have statewide jurisdiction and are authorized to perform a wide variety of law enforcement tasks iii. State highway patrols have limited authority with regard to their jurisdiction or by the offenses they have authority to controlE. Federal Law Enforcement Agencies i. Do not make up a large part of the nation’s law enforcement force ii. The Department of Homeland Securitya. Created through the Homeland Security Act signed by President George W. Bush in November 2002b. Functions as a cabinet-level department designed to coordinate federal efforts to protect the United States against international and domestic terrorismc. Twenty –two existing agencies were shifted under the control of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the three most visible agencies under DHS are:1. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) i. Keeps illegal immigrants, drugs, and drug traffickers from crossing the borders ii. Facilitating the smooth flow of legal trade and travel iii.  U.S. Border Patrol serves as a branch of the CBPAbout 20,000 Border Patrol agents guard 19,000 miles of land and sea border2. Unregulated Border Entry i. Mexican and Canadian borders are the most popular among illegal immigrants ii. Technologies for border control includes helicopters, surveillance towers, reconnaissance planes with infrared radar, and highly sensitive cameras iii. A new hotspot is Texas’s Rio Grande Valley3. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) i. implements laws concerning customs and immigration into the United Statesdetaining and deporting illegal aliensensuring that individuals without permission do not work or gain benefitsdisrupting human trafficking4. The U.S. Secret Service i. Created in 1865 to be primarily responsible for combating currency counterfeiters ii. Given additional responsibility of protecting the U.S. president, the president’s family, the victim president, the president elect, and former presidents, in 1901 iii. Has also become responsible for protecting political figures iv. Directs two uniformed groups of law enforcementSecret Service Uniformed Division – protects the grounds of the White House and its inhabitantsTreasury Police Force – polices the Treasury Building in Washington, D. C. 5. Additional DHS Agencies i. U.S. Coast Guard ii. The Transportation Security Administration iii. The Federal Emergency Management Agency Media Tool “DHS – ICE – Office of Intelligence Career Opportunities” A short clip about the work within the Department of Homeland Security. iii. The Department of Justicea. Created in 1870b. Primary law enforcement agency in the countryc. Responsible for enforcing criminal law and supervising federal prisonsd. Has a number of law enforcement agencies1. The Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) (LO 7) i. Initially created in 1908 ii. Has jurisdiction over nearly 200 federal crimes, including a number of white collar crimes, espionage, kidnapping, extortion, interstate transportation of stolen property, bank robbery, interstate gambling, and civil rights violations iii. Also combats terrorism and drug trafficking iv. National Crime Information Center (NCIC) provides lists of stolen vehicles and firearms, missing license plates, vehicles used to commit crimes, and other information to local and state law enforcement agencies2. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) i. Mission is to enforce domestic drug laws and regulations and to assist other federal and foreign agencies in combating illegal drug manufacture and trade on the international level ii. Enforces provisions of the Controlled Substances Act3. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) i. Concerned with the illegal sale, possession, and use of firearms and the control of untaxed tobacco and liquor products ii. Regulates all gun trade between the United States and foreign nations and collects taxes on all firearm importers, manufacturers, and dealers iii. Responsible for policing the illegal use and possession of explosives iv. Charged with enforcing federal gambling laws4. The U.S. Marshals Service i. Oldest federal law enforcement agency ii. Initially charged with responsibility to protect the U.S. Attorney General iii. Main duties todayProvide security at federal courts for judges, jurors, and other courtroom participantsControl property that has been seized by federal courtsProtect government witnesses who have placed themselves in danger by testifyingTransport federal prisoners to detention institutionsInvestigate violations of federal fugitive laws Media Tool “The Department of Justice” A short clip about the work within the Department of Justice. iv. The Department of the Treasurya. Formed in 1789b. Mainly responsible for all financial matters of the federal governmentc. Pays all the government’s bills, borrows money, collects taxes, mints coins, prints paper currencyd. Largest bureau is the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) – concerned with violations of tax law and regulationsF. Private Security i. Even with increasing numbers of local, state, and federal law enforcement officers, police do not have ability to prevent every crime ii. Privatizing Law Enforcementa. Ideally, a security guard should only observe and report criminal activity unless use of force is needed to prevent a felonyb. Private security is not designed to replace law enforcementc. Intended to deter crime rather than stop it iii. Continued Health in the Industrya. Indicators have pointed to higher growth in the industryb. Four factors driving growth1. Increase in fear on the part of the public triggered by growing crime rate, perceived or real2. Problem of crime in the workplace3. Budget cuts in states and municipalities have forced reductions in public police4. Rising awareness of private security products What If Scenario What if . . . your gated community was experiencing a significant increase in the number of home burglaries this year.  Many of the residents, retired and elderly folks, are scared to death that their home is going to be hit the next time they go on vacation.  Folks are already not pleased with the response from the local police department, which is understaffed, over budget, and scaling back on crimes they simply don’t believe that they can solve.  You, as the president of you homeowner’s association are  tasked with providing a report to your association at the next meeting, detailing  the benefits and detriments of hiring full time, 24/7 private security for your gated community.  Based on your research, you decide to give a report listing the pros and cons of hiring private security.  What will you propose?  If you choose to hire private security, should they be armed security?  Why or why not?  Lecture NotesModern police today have four primary responsibilities: (a) to enforce laws (b) to provide services (c) to prevent crime and (d) to preserve the peace. Do students agree with all of these mandates? Which is the most important? Those responsibilities come with a great deal of officer discretion. Discretion is the patrol officer’s ability to choose from a range of responses when s/he confronts a particular situation. What makes police officers worthy of the authority to use discretion? Take this opportunity to discuss with students the advantages and disadvantages of discretion and brainstorm the methods by which discretion can be limited.The roots of law enforcement in the United States can be traced to England.  Early law enforcement consisted of hired sheriffs; in 1801 Boston became the first city to institute a formal night watch; in 1838 Boston was the first to implement an organized police department. Since then, law enforcement has passed through three distinct eras: the political era, the reform era, and the community era. Work with students to identify the objectives and characteristics of each of these eras. Do students notice any themes or trends through the three eras?Today there are five main types of law enforcement agencies: (a) municipal police departments; (b) sheriffs’ departments; (c) special police agencies, such as those limited to school protection or airport security; (d) state police departments/highway patrols; and (e) federal law enforcement agencies. While students may be aware of the variety of agencies operating in your state, understanding how those agencies interrelate can be daunting. Spend some time relating this material to your region as a method illustrating this material.In the past decade, law enforcement at the federal level has undergone significant reorganization as a result of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Law enforcement has adapted to the changes by taking on an approach to policing called “Intelligence-Led Policing” that measures the risk of criminal behavior associated with certain individuals or locations so as to predict when and where such criminal behavior is most likely to occur in the future.  This has, in turn, led to police agencies utilizing the internet for gathering information.  The chapter next turns to an examination of police officer hiring and training practices.  Most agencies, at a minimum, require police officers to be citizens, not be convicted of a felony, have a driver’s license, be at least 21 years old, and meet weight and eyesight requirements.  While many of the minimum requirements have remained unchanged for decades, many departments have chosen to increase their educational standards. In addition, many departments have made efforts to increase their ethnic and gender diversity.  Women have increased from approximately 7% to 12% of police officers nationally over the last 25 years.  Minorities have also been slowly increasing their presence in local police departments since the late 1980s.  This is a good time to talk with students about what they think makes a good police officer. Do their ideas match the hiring standards of most agencies?This is a good time to discuss the motivations behind the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, as well as outline the agencies that are included under DHS control. Students are often unfamiliar with the various agencies that deal with immigration and border control issues in their new format. You might also take this opportunity to talk about the organizational shifts that have occurred in the FBI since September 11, 2001. Many students indicate an interest in this particular agency for future employment. Discuss with students the size of the FBI relative to other federal agencies and point out to them the likelihood of competing for job openings with the FBI relative to other agencies which might be approximately the same size or larger, and yet tend to be overlooked by job seekers. Private security is one of the fastest growing areas of the criminal justice field. Why? What role does private security play in homeland security and crime prevention? The heightened fear of crime and the potential for a terrorist attack have led many businesses, as well as private citizens, to develop plans for securing their property and themselves. While there are advantages to implementing private security measures, there are also a number of concerns with this particular field, including a lack of standards and training.Key TermsAffirmative action – a hiring or promotion policy favoring those groups, such as women,African Americans, or Hispanics, who have suffered from discrimination in the past or continueto suffer from discrimination. (p. 117)Coroner – the medical examiner of a county, usually elected by a popular vote. (p. 122)Discrimination  – the illegal use of characteristics such as gender or race by employerswhen making hiring or promotion decisions. (p. 117)Double marginality – the double suspicion that minority law enforcement officers facefrom their white colleagues and from members of the minority community to which they belong.(p. 119)Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) – the federal agency responsible for enforcingthe nation’s laws and regulations regarding narcotics and other controlled substances. (p. 126)Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI)  – the branch of the Department of Justiceresponsible for investigating violations of federal law.  (p. 126)Field training  – the segment of a police recruit’s training in which he or she is removedfrom the classroom and placed on the beat, under the supervision of a senior officer. (p. 116)Infrastructure – the services and facilities that support the day-to-day needs of modern life,such as electricity, food, transportation, and water. (p. 125) Intelligence-led policing – an approach that measures the risk of criminal behaviorassociated with certain individuals or locations so as to predict when and where such criminalbehavior is most likely to occur in the future. (p. 111)Night watch system – an early form of American law enforcement in which volunteerspatrolled their community from dusk to dawn to keep the peace. (p. 108)Patronage system – a form of corruption in which the political party in power hires andpromotes police officers receiving job-related “favors” in return. (p. 109)Private security- security services provided by private corporations or individuals instead of bypolice officers. (p. 128)  Probationary period – a period of time at the beginning of a police officer’s career duringwhich she or he may be fired without cause. (p. 115)Professional model  – a style of policing advocated by August Vollmer and O.W. Wilsonthat emphasizes centralized police organizations, increased used of technology, and a limitationof police discretion through regulations and guidelines. (p. 109)Recruitment  – the process by which law enforcement agencies develop a pool ofQualified applicants from which to select new members. (p. 114)Sheriff – the primary law enforcement officer in a county, usually elected to the post by a popular vote. (p. 121)U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) – the federal agency responsible forprotecting U.S. borders and facilitating legal trade and travel across those borders. (p. 124)U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) – the federal agency that enforcesthe nation’s immigration and customs laws. (p. 124)U.S. Secret Service – a federal law enforcement organization with the primaryresponsibility of protecting the president, the president’s family, the vice president, and otherimportant political figures. (p. 125)Visa – official authorization allowing a person to travel to and within the issuing country. (p.124)Assignments1. Imagine you are a policy maker and you are thinking about the various responsibilities of police officers. Are there any responsibilities that should not be included? In recent years, the task of “providing services” has become rather controversial. Do students feel this is an appropriate function for law enforcement? Why or why not? (LO 1) Ask students to conduct research on the history of policing. Have them select one of the individuals mentioned in the chapter (Sir Robert Peel, August Vollmer, O.W. Wilson, etc.) and conduct research on him or her on the internet. Have them prepare a short biography of their selected practitioner, including a photo. In a written assignment, students should discuss the impact their policing professional has had on law enforcement in the United States. Encourage students to go beyond those practitioners mentioned in the chapter—for example, consider having them select the first women to work as patrol officers, or the first minority members to hold administrative positions in the field. (LO 2) Watch the video “2012 Law Enforcement Academy Video” at Research the requirements for your local law enforcement agency. Explain why they have such requirements (why are they important) and whether you think the requirements are appropriate. Discuss whether the requirements should be the same for males and females. Justify your decision. (LO 3) Have students go online to research the topic of racial tensions between police and citizens. Following, research the impact of minority police officers on the police-citizen relationship. Do you think that diversification of police would reduce the racial problems and hatred towards police? Prepare a class report including two discussion questions. (LO 5) Profile a federal agency with law enforcement responsibilities towards the objective of homeland security. You should document the agency’s mission, number of agents, jurisdiction, etc. Create a handout for the class which includes not only this information, but information on gaining employment with the agency: duties, qualification, salary, and a description of the hiring process. Lead a class discussion on this topic.  (LO 6-7)Answers To Critical Thinking Questions In The Text Which of the four basic responsibilities of the police do you think is most important? Why?ANS: All of the tasks are important, but for many people crime prevention would probably rank the highest. People are most afraid of being victimized because the emotional, physical, and financial consequences can be devastating. Some law enforcement agencies have the same physical agility and fitness requirements for male and female applicants, while others do not hold women to the same physical standards as men. Which approach do you favor, and why?ANS: On the one hand, women naturally do not have the same body composition and make-up. Therefore women do not compete with men in professional sports. For instance, the fastest female 100 m sprinter cannot beat the fastest male 100 m sprinter. This is true for most sports. When it comes to shooting and other skills based tasks, I would set the standards to be the same. For physical agility and fitness, however, it seems unrealistic. You either have to decrease the requirements, so that women can meet them or have different requirements. On the other hand, criminals do not run slower or jump lower because a female officer is chasing them. Thus, females need to be able to fulfill the same requirements as male officers. Also, female officers must be able to provide help and backup to their male colleagues. Thus, all recruits must meet the same requirements.   Review the discussion of double marginality in this chapter. Why would members of a minority community think that police of the same race or ethnicity were “traitors”? What can police departments to do dispel this misperception?ANS: Because they believe that minority officers betray them by being part of the “bad cops,” engaging in racial profiling just like the white cops, and therefore discriminating against minorities. Police departments could diversify the police force further to help minority officers feel more accepted and equal within the police force. They should also improve the police-citizen relationship by engaging the community and providing services to the communities. Community policing has been shown to effectively improve the relationship with the community. This may be a good approach for minority officers in minority neighborhoods because they would be perceived as a “helper” rather than a “cop.” One of the major differences between a local police chief and a sheriff is that the sheriff is elected, while the police chief is appointed. What are some of the possible problems with having a law enforcement official who, like any other politician, is responsible to voters? What are some of the possible benefits of this situation?ANS: Elected officials tend to cater to their constituency. This can have positive and negative consequences. A positive consequence is a certain accountability to the population. Accountability reduces the likelihood of corruption. A negative consequence is that sheriffs are politicians. They may implement policies that are wanted by the population even though these policies have been shown to be ineffective by research. They may also repay their political debt by promoting those who have given them support rather than those who are most capable. Twenty-nine states do not require any specific training for private security personnel. What are the arguments for and against requiring at least forty hours of training, as is the case in California and Florida?  ANS: Private security should have training that teaches them appropriate responses to crime victims. They need to know the rules of law and the boundaries of their job. This is important so innocent people don’t get hurt and evidence doesn’t get destroyed.