This approach means a move from a traditional ‘control’ type approach which accepts, implicitly, that defects will occur. Joseph M. Juran proposes the tools of control including the Bell system of sampling, the Shewhart control charts and inspection plans. These models could be successfully applied to CERG, but they will be replaced by modern theories of quality and cost control.
The human dimension (training, education, cultural diversity management) proposed by Juran helps to motivate and inspire employees. For CERG, Juran’s human approach help to create continuous motivation to achieve quality improvements, supported by appropriate education and training. Place emphasis on education will affect attitudes and motivation to achieving quality improvements. Also, Juran identified such threats as resistance to change and cultural resistance as important areas of concern. If staff are informed of changes, are encouraged to adopt a positive attitude and have personal involvement in the implementation of the change, there is a greater likelihood of their acceptance of the change (Beckford, 2002). Juran applied the Japanese philosophy on quality into Western management practices emphasizing the role of human resources and control. New quality programs should comprise a quality plan which offers a structured, disciplined approach to quality and incorporates a number of tools and techniques. Particular emphasis is given to the collection and analysis of information and to employee training. It is culturally based with involvement as a core philosophy.
W. Edwards Deming identifies ’14 Points’ which have a great impact on productivity and profitability of the company. His theory is based on process orientation which means a product quality throughout production. "It is not enough to just do your best or work hard. You must know what to work on" (Beckford, 2002). Deming creates a four step approach to quality and productivity which can be applied to CERG: plan-do-check-act. Also, he introduced Statistical Quality Control. This theory cannot be applied to CERG, bit it can be used by other departments in order to support CERG activity and increase output. Customer orientation is important for CERG, so the quality program should apply quality control principles to design/specification activities to formalize the mechanism for ensuring that customer requirements are incorporated (Arogyaswamy, Simmons, 1993).
Philip Crosby marked a new era in quality management and control. His concept, "doing it right the first time" (DIRTFT), is successfully used by different industries and companies. The main principles of quality include: (1) quality is conformance to requirements. (2) the management system is prevention. (3) the performance standard is zero defects. (4) the measurement system is the cost of quality. CERG can use these principles as a core of quality philosophy. Following Crosby, quality is based on goals, measurements, and cash incentives for employees and management. It also has some aspects of quality circles. In order to make the program work, CERG should introduce: a motivational package, a prevention package (reducing management controlled defects), procedures to provide for feedback. Within CERG, low motivation results in high level of mistakes and ‘defects’. For this reason, these elements of zero defects and the cost of qualit