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CYBER CRIME           Chapter 3           ObjectivesReview Traditional Problems in the Recognition and Prosecution of Computer Crime Discuss the History of Computer CrimesExplore the Traditional Rationales for Phreakers and HackersDiscuss the Evolution of HackingAcquire an Appreciation for Computers as Marketable CommoditiesExplore the Current State of Computer Crimes Globally                 DetailsTraditional Problems vs. Emerging IssuesNormally criminal statutes are based upon the physical location (vicinage) of the actJurisdictional issues usually involve which court (local, state, federal, military, Indian Reservation), will prosecute the caseCybercrime expands beyond the spatial boundaries into global connectivityCybercrime obscures the  jurisdictional landscape for traditional crimeso Identifying the vicinage is difficult§ Scenario: Resident of Tennessee places an illegal wager on a sporting event by purchasing gaming software from a site located overseas§ The winnings are electronically transferred to an account in Las Vegas§ He violated state and federal gambling laws by possessing a gaming device but inconclusive whether he placed any bets§ Conclusion: lack of physicality creates questions about crime being committed and which agency has jurisdictionCybercrime is not enforced by any International Agreements or Memorandums of Understandingo Many countries have become safe havens for cybercrime because they receive significant compensation in the form of corporate taxes (payoffs) from fraudstersCybercriminals use techniques that mask or block their identitieso Anonymizer: sites which enable the user to mask their IP (computer)  addresses through rerouting, remailing, or deletion of header information§ Privacy advocates support the these sites as a nurturing environment for First Amendment o Criminals use encryption programs to hide their activities§ Federal government attempting to enact laws that would make encryption keys discoverable by subpoenaEvidence Retrievalo Internet service providers not required to maintain transmission records like telecommunications companieso Digital evidence is voluminous thus time consuming for investigatorso Digital evidence is easily modified or  deletedHistorical Highlights of Computer CrimeFirst computer crime: ( 1800’s) workers at a textile plant destroyed a machine that automated several steps in manufacturing process threatening manual labor jobs(1986) Russian KGB operative (Cal Berkeley employee) hacked into military database and obtained information(1988) Cornell student created damaging program (Morris worm) that attacked computers via the Internet; damaged 6,000 computers; $5-100 million in lossesPhreakers and Hackers Phreakers: manipulation of telecommunication carriers to gain knowledge of telecommunications and/or theft of services Illegal access to Private Branch Exchange Systems (Businesses) Illegal use of access codes and access tones Shoulder surfing: looking over person’s shoulder while dialing War dialing: testing numerous codes until one is successful Used in college dorms, military bases, traveling business teams Hacking: term used by MIT students in 1960’s referring to techniques that identify computer shortcuts or clever pranks; (1980’s) term was popularized in the film, War Games Traditional hacker culture was characterized by anti-establishment rhetoric Hackers  use  a service that could be inexpensive except it’s run by profiteering gluttons We explore and you call us criminals We seek after knowledge and you call us criminals We exist without skin color, without nationality, without religious bias and you call us criminals Hacker Typologies White hat hackers: individuals who identify system vulnerabilities in the interest of promoting heightened security Black hat hackers: individuals who identify and exploit system vulnerabilities for illegal purposes such as destruction or theft Gray hat hackers: may identify weaknesses in systems for administrators but also sell information to black hat hackers Computer Intrusion Motivations   Boredom (informational voyeurism): individuals are motivated by inquisitiveness to sensationalism  Intellectual challenge (mining for knowledge-pure hackers-thrill seekers): subculture that proclaim to be seekers of knowledge and reject any individuals who use skills for cybercrime Revenge (insiders, disgruntled employees): intentional acts of destruction by insiders who become disgruntled after being passed over for promotion or laid off by budget cuts; unintentional breach of security protocols pose most significant threat (failure to protect passwords) cite p. 60 (Seeking Revenge) Sexual Gratification (stalking, harassment): Sexual predators Economic ( Criminals): Personal gain Political (hacktivists, terrorists, spies): Extremist groups target government and business entities for ideological, religious beliefs Hierarchy of Contemporary Cybercriminals Script kiddies: Lowest form of cybercriminal; inexperienced hackers who employ scripts or other programs authored by others to exploit security vulnerabilities Motivations range from simple pranks on college campuses to criminal profit when hackers capture bank accounts and password information to access victim’s account Cyberpunks: law enforcement labels these individuals who vandalize and destroy computers by introducing viruses and worms for no economic gain Crackers: Sophisticated users who employ their knowledge for personal gain Cybercriminal Organizations: term does not include traditional organized crime groups but rather groups of individuals who use the internet to communicate collaborate and facilitate cybercrime Hacktivists: Fastest growing group of hackers; activist groups added data breaches to their arsenal of destructive weaponsComputers as Targets Hardware: Computer chips Integrated circuits CPU’s Motherboards Ethercards Resale of components are high due to difficulty in tracing them Blackmarket dealers are organized groups trafficking in stolen computer components that solicit orders and target victims accordingly Gray market dealers are legitimate businesses that buy stolen components from thieves and sell to customers who want custom computers Theft of Intellectual Property Software: Industries involved in mass production of intellectual property have benefited from enhanced production strategies Digital pirates have targeted these industries to duplicate and distribute unauthorized copies of their intellectual property Top Target Industries: Manufacturing, Sales/distribution, Service, Financial Services, Software Development (2010) theft of software for personal computers increased by 14%; $59 billion Film Piracy: Optical disc piracy, Internet piracy, video-cassette piracy, theatrical print theft, broadcast piracy Overseas market for American films involves new releases and old films Primary market in US are those films not yet available on DVD or cable Illegal copying and distribution are done by individuals and organized crime groups