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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Psychological Factors

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ADHD affects on an average 3 to 5% of children and is the most common mental health problem among young children in the U.S. Hyperactivity is manifested in the child always seeming to be in a hurry or constantly in motion. Impulsivity is common and the children seem unable to curb their immediate actions or thought processes. Inattention or an easy distraction from the work at hand is a common symptom. The effects of having an ADHD child on the family is a debatable matter since the nursing and care of the child is a considerable responsibility of the other members of the family. Both parents and children need special help to develop techniques and methods to manage the patterns of behavior. (ADHD, NIMH review, 2003)
A National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in the USA and Canadian National Longitudinal survey of children and youth studies were done on 4-14-year-old children focusing on symptoms of ADHD and educational outcomes. The possibility that some children who belong to low-income households may be more prone to ADHD and also have worse outcomes was stressed on in these studies. The authors found out that children with more symptoms of ADHD have significantly lower math and reading scores on standardized tests even several years later. The authors also found that boys and girls with moderate symptoms are similarly affected but boys with severe symptoms are more likely to have a worse outcome than girls. In general, boys are 2 to 3 times more likely to suffer from ADHD. They found that children from high income, high-class families are not more likely to receive treatment than those from lower class families. This is due to the stigma associated with ADHD preventing the high-income families from acknowledging the problem of their child. (The effect of ADHD on Educational outcomes, 2005)Thus social class does seem to have an influence on ADHD occurrence and social stigma involved, nursing care and educational help needed are viewed differently by different classes.