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HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF ANTI-SEMITISMAnti-Semitism:”opposition to, prejudice or discrimination against or intolerance of Jews & Jewish culture”  1. St. John Chrysostom (347-407). “It is because you killed Christ…you shed the precious blood that there is now no restoration, no mercy anymore, and no defense.”2. Jews in the Christian Roman Empire after 389 C.E. (a) a visible minority with different customs (kosher food, circumcision, etc.), (b) forbidden on pain of death to make converts, (c) characterized as rejecters of Christianity and Christ killers.3. Anti-Christianity in the Talmud: In three passages, the rabbis make scurrilous, uninformed comments about Jesus: that he was a sorcerer, a seducer, a bastard and his mother a prostitute.  4. The Crusades: 10,000 Jews murdered in Germany in 1096 on eve of First Crusade—“Who kills a Jew has all his sins forgiven” (crusader saying). 5. Well poisoning: during “Black Death”/Bubonic Plague (1347-51) in Europe Jews were accused of poisoning wells; 12,000 were executed in Mainz, Germany and many elsewhere.  [Iran is claiming that Israel & Jews caused COVID-19]6. Dissenting Christian Voices: Peter Abelard (1079-1142) & Nicolaus of Cusa (1401-64) who admired & respected the Jewish people. 7. Blood Libel: between 1144 and 1911, there were numerous instances of the charge that Jews kidnapped Christian children to make matzah (unleavened bread) for Passover.  Chaucer records one such alleged murder in his Canterbury Tales.8. Expulsions: England (1290), France (1306 & 1392), Hungary (1349-60), numerous German locales (1300-1500), Spain (1492, Portugal (1496), & Italy (1497).  9. Spanish Inquisition (1481-1808): the fanatical attempt to discover Jewish so-called marranos/pigs who had ostensibly converted to Christianity. Method use of the rack, water boarding and other means of torture.10. Establishment of the Ghetto by Pope Paul IV in 1555. 11. Luther’s anti-Semitism: after being conciliatory towards Jews in his early, post-Reformation years, L. gradually grew frustrated with their refusal to consider conversion and urged his followers to “burn their synagogues, destroy their houses, confiscate copies of the Talmud and prayer books…and expel them from the land forever.” 12.  Dreyfus Affair (1894-1899): French Jewish army officer falsely accused and twice convicted of treason despite overwhelming evidence that he was innocent. Finally exonerated thanks to esteemed author Emile Zola. 13. Holocaust (1933-45: “Not all the victims were Jews, but all the Jews were victims” (E. Wiesel). Theological (Christian) anti-Semitism laid the ground work for the racist, pagan Jew hatred and annihilation that Hitler perpetrated. 14. The birth of a modern Jewish state in 1948 has fueled a new kind of Anti-Semitism—Arab/Muslim hatred of “Zionists” (which they try to distinguish from hatred of all Jews). It has sparked: (a) a revival of the Blood Libel (b) denial that Jews ever had a homeland in ancient Israel/Judea & Samaria (c) religiously justified terrorism (d) promotion of the so-called Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions movement (BDS) throughout the world (e) Holocaust denial, esp. in Iran (f) equating Zionism with racism. 2018: 1,879 anti-Semitic acts in USA