Gass and Selinker (1993) found that “there is now overwhelming evidence that language transfer is indeed a real and central phenomenon that must be considered in any full account of the second language process.” Many writers have agreed that the language transfer is of two types:
The focus of this literature will be the transfer of L1 and L2 among the Saudi people. It is commonly known that the L1 language of the Saudis is Arabic. For this research, English will be considered the second language (L2). Arabic is very different language than all the rest of the world languages. When non-native speakers of English learn English as a second language (L2), it is the parlance of Arabic that they are exposed to in language acquisitions.
The native speakers of Arabic face many problems while acquiring any second language. Arabic is language that is written from right to left and the books are bound from the right-hand side while in other foreign languages complete reverse of this is seen. The sound system of both English and Arabic and as aforementioned, the writing systems of both the languages differ a lot.
The problem is transfer of language can also occur due to avoidance of use of different structure. According to Huthaily (2003), Schachter (1974) conducted a research in which he analyzed that the Chinese and Japanese native speakers made fewer errors while learning English as L2 in comparison to the Persian and Arabic learners due to the reason that they generated fewer relative clauses.
Many different studies have found that when certain thinking aloud protocols are used, it helps cognitive transfer of the languages and creates developmental enlightenments for ESL students’ inter-language. Arndt (1987) have researched that these protocols can become a valuable methodology in order to measure the thinking processes involved during the writing tasks of L2 acquisition. Besides the positive transfer of language, many negative