In alcoholic fermentation, the initial process is the breakdown of glucose. The cell breaks down glucose to produce energy in the absence of oxygen. The process is called glycolysis and takes place in the cytosol of the cell.
The energy released from this reaction is useful in the conversion of NAD+ to NADH. The energy is also used in binding ADP to inorganic phosphates. Production of two pyruvate molecules follows. Breakdown of the two pyruvate molecules takes place leading to the production of two acetaldehydes and two CO2 as a waste product. It then follows that the two acetaldehydes undergo the conversion to two ethanol using the H+ ions from NADH, which is converted back to NAD+.
Alcoholic fermentation has many applications. Some of these applications are the production of ethanol fuel, in bread baking, in the fermentation of foods such as milk and vegetables and the production of alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer. Despite the fact that the general principle of fermentation is the same for all products, the method of achieving it and the end results differ. Beer preparation by fermentation involves picking rye, wheat or barley followed by germinating, drying and pulping it into a mash. The mash is mixed together with hot water and transferred to a fermentation vessel to commence the process of fermentation. Yeast is added to the mixture that converts the sugar present in the ash to carbon dioxide and alcohol. Once the beer is filtered and conditioned, it is ready for consumption.