A History of Modern Psychology

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Background: Anna Freud Anna Freud was born in Vienna, in the year 1895. Besides, her mother was Martha Bernays and her father was Sigmund Freud. But she was not able to maintain warm relationship with her mother. So she was looked after by a Catholic nurse, named as Josephine. In addition, she faced problems to deal with Sophie (say, her sister). To be specific, Anna considered that her sister is more attractive than her and this created tension between them. So, these problems created emotional trauma in Anna’s mind and she gradually became affected by emotional and physical problems. Still, Anna did not ignore her education and she completed her education in the year 1912. Later in the year 1917, she started her career as a teacher. But ill health hindered her professional life and was she forced to quit her job. So, Anna decided to co-operate with her father to continue his research in psychology, especially in psychoanalysis. Moe (2007) states that, Born and educated in Austria, Anna Freud entered psychoanalysis with her father (not an unusual arrangement at the time) in 1918 (p.153). … She passed away in the year 1982. Theoretical perspective: psychoanalysis One can see that Anna Freud’s theoretical perspective is deeply influenced by her father’s interest in psychoanalysis. Hergenhahn (2008) states that, Anna became her father’s emissary to psychoanalytic societies throughout the world, delivered his papers, typed his daily correspondence, and, along with his friend and physician Max Schur, attended to his personal and medical needs (p.553). But she did not limit her research work within the field of psychoanalysis. Instead, she extended he research work to the context of psychoanalytic child psychology and ego psychology. One can see that Anna’s work named as Beating Fantasies and Daydreams is symbolic of dedication towards psychology. During the initial stages of her career as a psychologist, she cooperated with her father’s research related to psychoanalysis. To be specific, her service at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Training Institute helped her to realize the importance of psychoanalysis in child analysis. Later, Anna began to continue her research work in defensive operations. One can see that this initiative is deeply influenced by her father’s research work and contributions to the field of psychoanalysis. Within this context, she considered that psychoanalysis is important within clinical field. To be specific, the interpretation of defensive operations and defense mechanism can be helpful for the clinical psychologists to diagnose the problems faced by the patients. Her research work related to ego and consciousness is interconnected with the structural theory, formulated by her father. So, one can see that Anna’s theoretical