These are the interactions form the child’s conscious and unconscious perceptions of the environment. The researchers of psychoanalysts see development as a progress of capacities that have relation with the changes in the subjective experience. Notwithstanding the fact that all psychoanalytic traditions perceive individuals as complex products of nature and nurture, there are also followers of the natural factors that impact the development and are also concerned about the understanding of environmental influences (Milton, .Polmear &. .Fabricius, 2011). There are four major psychoanalytic theories of such development. These are the theories of Freud, Anna Freud, Melanie Klein and Donald Winnicott. The following paper will illustrate the main theories of Melanie Klein and Donald Winnicott, particularly Klein’s theory of object relations and projective identification and Winnicott’s theory false self, true self and theory of the parent-infant relationship. Further it will illustrate the critical analysis of the two theories and their impact on the field of psychoanalysis.
Donald Winnicott, a child psychiatrist ad psychoanalyst developed his theories with the emphasis on the maternal environment and the emergence of self. His focus on the external world experience of development and on the transitional surrounding makes his theory to operate in parallel with the phenomenological perspective of Klein’s of the internal world with the instinctive and symbolic levels of experience. Melanie Klein was the first psychoanalytic theorist who followed Freud’ views. Her theory of paranoid-schizoid and depressive position experience is formulated in terms of self- integration and the separation individualization. Winnicott’s aspects of external world, such as holding the environment and the development of facilitating functions interact with the Klein’s ideas in self-