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Proposal of Male and Female Wage Disparity in Developed CountriesIntroductionWith social progress and development, inequality between men and women has gradually narrowed, however, there is still a large gap between men and women in the labor market. Gender disparity can a problem from a public policy perspective, as it reduces the size of the economy and means that women may depend on welfare to live, especially in old age. So that is one reason why we need to study and narrow the wage gap between men and women, and we need to increases gender equality to promote economic growth. Wage inequality is mainly reflected in the average difference between men and women, and also the distribution of wage which can reflect on the gender occupation segmentation (with more men in higher paid industries and women in lower paid industries) and glass ceilings (reference to barriers in the careers of high-achieving women). In this proposal, one article that highlight labor market discrimination from different perspectives shall be analyzed with an aim to come up with an image of the issue in developed counties. The purpose of this proposal is to explore what cause the gender pay gap between men and women and how should we reduce this gap in developed countries. Literature ReviewGlass Ceilings or Glass Doors? The Role of Firm in Male-female Wage Disparities. Javdani, M.(2015)In this article, the author uses the phrases “glass ceiling” and “glass doors” to refer to discrimination as it affects women in terms of the jobs they undertake, and the organizations in which they are sorted respectively. Javdani (2015) observes that without understanding the mechanisms by which discrimination in the labor market occurs, the policymakers may not be able to establish sustainable solutions. As Zurndorfer, (2016) observations, there has been a lot of emphasis on the wage gap that exists between men and women all over the world. However, it is essential that this disparity is reviewed by wage distribution. Women are conspicuously underrepresented in the high wage regions of this distribution, and this under representation intensifies as evaluation moves up the wage distribution levels. This notion has two implications that also Heijstra, (2015) appears to concur with; that women are faced with a glass ceiling when it comes to the labor market, and that the gap between men and women wages is wider at the top than at the middle of the wage distribution.The policymakers are yet to establish the mechanisms by which these glass ceilings develop, and can thus not be able to address wage disparities between men and women. Several elements related to discrimination in the labor market are investigated in this study including the conditional wage distribution that may potentially be the cause of the presence of the glass ceiling. Also, the author highlights the role that segregation of women into low-paying firms versus the low paying jobs and the input the two aspects have on discrimination in the labor market. The other element that the author investigates is the contribution of inter-firm wages versus the inter-firm segregation.In Canada, the relative market qualification among other aspects such as the wage-setting institutions, wage structure, and the government policies are stated to be different compared to those established in European environments. The author observes that the wage disparity as seen in this study is driven by factors that are widely divided into those that are registered within firms and those that operate between different firms. This is to say that the jobs that females are enrolled in within firms may be lower-paying compared to their male counterparts. The other implication is lower-paying firms sort that female workers as compared to men being enrolled with higher-paying firms. Therefore, the labor market discrimination is generally based on these two mechanisms, under which other factors that are highlighted in this paper affect the wage gap. It is the later mechanism that the author refers to as the glass doors as they prevent the accessibility to high paying firms by women in favor of men.According to the findings by Javdani (2015), it was observed that there is a common tendency of a male being employed in a firm where 32% are female, whereas a female has a tendency of being employed in firms where 62% are female workers The author observes that it is only firms that employ fewer females that tend to pay higher wages. The significance of family is also highlighted in this case as one of the subsamples that were investigated included workers with at least one dependent child, and those that lack such a child. The overall finding is that women are faced with glass ceilings in their respective wage distribution levels. More importantly, these ceilings intensify as the women rise along with this distributions. The glass ceilings according to the author may be economy-wide, or within-firm. The effects of these ceilings are more intense in the earlier than the latter, but all the same, registered in both cases.This article presents an exhaustive account of the mechanisms by which discrimination in the labor market develops. Besides the factors highlighted such as the access to high paying jobs within an organization, and access to the top paying organization, the author observes that the underlying factors such as family are also important. For example, the ability of a woman to work at home, the hours she may be available depending on the home responsibilities are critical to determining their vulnerability to a glass ceiling, and some extent, the glass door. The author points out some stereotypes that may be contributing to the lesser enrollment of women in high paying jobs, one of them being that women are more family-oriented than men who are believed to be work-oriented. However, this belief would be misleading and only intensify the already huge discrimination against women in the labor market. In this  article, the barriers to equity and equality in the labor market are said to be determined by the different levels of the wage distribution. Both glass ceilings and glass doors contribute to the persistent wage gap in different ways. More research would need to be done on the unknown factors that are estimated at 50% to ensure that the necessary measures are adopted to promote family economics and the overall equality between men and women.Miller, C. (2017). The Gender Pay Gap Is Largely Because of Motherhood. The New York Times.It is a traditional reality that women play more domestic roles compared to men. The aspect of childbearing is central to the wage gap that exists between men and women. It is this factor that contributes to the eventual disparity between men’s and women’s income in a few years after college. According to Miller, it is during the women’s reproductive age that the wage gap grows wider despite both men and women earning a reasonably balanced wage by the time they graduate. Nevertheless, it is a known fact that all women including those that are not married and don’t have babies earn lower wages compared to men. Most employers are wary of giving women core responsibilities in their organizations in fear that the availability of women is unpredictable given that they may either ask for maternity leaves or may quit their jobs to move with their husbands. It is this turn of events that according to Schmitz, (2018) contributes to the distortion and enlargement of the wage gap as a result of the unpredictability of women in the labor market that is translated to unreliability from a business perspective. Miller observes that the low income and family responsibilities influence each other in a vicious cycle where women are charged with family chores on the basis that they earn less compared to men, whereas it is the same responsibilities that contribute to the lower wages. This article reflects an observation also made by Schultz, (2016) stating that despite the fact that women do cut back on their jobs, the pay cut is not proportional, with employers paying disproportionately more and less for more and fewer hours respectively. The major constraint for the decision makers, in this case, is the social responsibilities that women in the society are charged with. However, such constraints can only be socially addressed both at the workplace and also in public policy. The priority should be shifted from long hours and also addressing the cost of childcare alongside the length of leaves offered for parental purposes.ConclusionTo be able to eliminate this discrimination, we first need to start with the government’s policies. Except in some special jobs (need to hire men as the main employees such as firefighters, which require more physical work, but it does not mean that women are completely unsuitable for this kind of job), the government should set the company’s percentage of female employees less than 50% (in the same educational background and ability). Secondly, the government should regulate the wages of men and women in equal jobs with the same qualification and ability. Based on the finding of Australian Government and Workplace Gender Equality Agency[1], in 2017 to 2018 the gender pay gap was higher among managers compared to non-managers, the gender pay gap of managers is 25.7%, and the average total wage difference is USD 50,370. From this we can see that the income gap between men and women in the same position is so huge. The wage gap should be reduced and the level of women’s welfare should be increased to protect women in old age. This initiative can promote economic development and equality. ReferencesHeijstra, T., Bjarnason, T., & Rafnsdóttir, G. L. (2015). Predictors of Gender Inequalities in the Rank of Full Professor. Scandinavian Journal Of Educational Research, 59(2), 214-230. Javdani, M. (2015). Glass ceilings or glass doors? The role of firms in male-female wage disparities. Canadian Journal Of Economics, 48(2), 529-560.Miller, C. (2017). The Gender Pay Gap Is Largely Because of Motherhood. The New York Times. Web., S. (2018). Race and Gender Discrimination Across Urban Labor Markets. London: Routledge.Schultz, J. (2016). Gender-Wage Discrimination by Marital Status in Canada: 2006 to 2016.Verniers, C., & Vala, J. (2018). Justifying gender discrimination in the workplace: The mediating role of motherhood myths. Plos ONE, 13(1), 1-23. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0190657Zurndorfer, H. (2016). Men, Women, Money, and Morality: The Development of China’s Sexual Economy. Feminist Economics, 22(2), 1-23. doi:10.1080/13545701.2015.1026834[1]. (August 2019) Australia’s Gender Pay Gap Statistics