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335Comparisons

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                                                    JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY & ISLAM COMPARED JEWS                                                                         CHRISTIANS                                        MUSLIMSMonotheistic                                                             Monotheistic                          Monotheistic                                                                               (Trinitarian)               Abraham Progenitor                                          Abraham                                AbrahamJerusalem holy city                                                      Jerusalem                               Jerusalem Reverence for Heb. Prophets                        Rev. for Prophets                 Rev. for Prophets Hebrew Bib.accptd                                           Heb. Bib.accptd                      Not accptd as canonical                                                          as canonical                              but respectedNo New Test.                                                       New Testament                      Qur’an in place of,(Talmud plays                                               Church Fathers                                 but N.T. respectedparallel role)                                                                                                                       Hadith suppl. Qur’anJesus not divine                                                  Jesus divine &                               Jesus not divine,nor a prophet                                                      savior–messiah                             but reveredMuhammad not accptd                                  M. not accepted                                  Muhammad  accptdas seal of prophecy                                                                                                                 and reveredMore stress on observance                             More stress on faith                    Stress on observance(613 commandments)                                      (Nicene Creed)                             (Five Pillars)Prayer 3x Daily                                                Daily Prayer                                        Prayer 5x Daily
Sabbath observance                                         Sunday observance                Friday communal prayer                             Dietary laws/Kosher                                        No dietary laws                        Dietary laws/Halal(elaborate system)                                      (except a few in Rom. Cath.                       (No pork products)                                                                      & several in Orthodox Church)Circumcision Required                                   Not required                               Circum.  requiredEthical conduct                                                 Ethical conduct                            Ethical conductjustice  stressed                                                             love                                          submissionAlcohol permitted                                              Alcohol permitted                        No alcoholAfterlife                                                                      Afterlife                                            Afterlife not stressed                                                                important                                  importantConvert-making                                                       Evangelization                       Islam should be not stressed                                                                  very important                       spreadMonogamy                                                                 Monogamy                         Polygamy  (up to 4                                                                                                                                                 wives; not common)Gambling reluctantly permitted                          in moderation?                        Forbidden  HISTORICAL SOURCES OF CONFLICT:A. JEWISH-CHRISTIAN1. Bitter rivalry between rabbinic Judaism and early church reflected in New Testament 2. Christianization of Roman Empire and subsequent centuries of persecution of Jews–including “the teaching of contempt,” Jews as Christ-killers3. Modern anti-Semitism, especially the Holocaust, not strongly resisted by most church leaders    B. MUSLIM-CHRISTIAN1. Islam’s initial expansion tied to conquest2. The Crusades3. Efforts by Muslim countries, especially Turkish Ottoman Empire, to conquer parts of Europe4. Second-class (dhimmi) status of Christians in Muslim countries5. Western imperialism, e.g., in the somewhat artificial creation of new Middle East states after WW I  C. JEWISH-MUSLIM1. Jewish rejection of Muhammad’s claims to prophethood (reflected in a few Qur’anic verses)2. Second-class (dhimmi) status of Jews in Muslim countries3. Founding of State of Israel in 1948 against strong objections from Muslim and Arab nations, leading to subsequent Arab-Israel wars, terrorism directed against Israel and refugee problems for Palestinians Signs of Hope:a. Second Vatican Council’s document on relations with non-Christian religions (1965); Vatican’s recognition of State of Israel (1993)b. Growth of Jewish-Catholic and Jewish-Protestant dialogue movementc. Gradual emergence of Jewish-Christian-Muslim dialogue (e.g., Academy for Judaic, Christian and Islamic Studies), and of Jewish-Muslim and Christian-Muslim dialogue  d. The American Islamic experience as a model for other countries (“integrity and adaptation”)e. Making common cause to solve global problems: hunger, political repression, religious persecution, etc.
Continuing Sore Spots:a. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Palestinian terrorism answered by Israeli military repressionb. The perception by Muslims that America unfairly supports Israel vis-à-vis Palestinec. The invasions of Iraq & Afghanistan and their troubled aftermathd. Repressive or fundamentalist regimes in predominantly Muslim countriese. The use of terrorism by Muslim extremists (Al-Qaeda, ISIS) to achieve political goals f. The perceived moral laxity of predominantly Christian countries, especially the USA, in the eyes of the Islamic world